TPM: The introduction


The final competition of every industry is management. Advanced management is the key of morden enterprise to make lean production, improve effeciency, assure quality and optimize cost. The target of TPM is 0 accident, 0 defect, 0 breakdown. TPM (Total productive maintenance), the best level certificate of it is WCM (world class management) is the new chasing of morden manufacturing industry. All of the enterprises and plants, who want to be excellent, take it as the secret weapon to satisfy the customer by capacity, delivery, quality, cost, morale and environment through building WCM.

PILLAR 1-5S TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized.Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement.

SEIRI—Sort outThis means sorting and organizing the items as critical, important, frequently used items,useless, or items that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be salvaged. Critical itemsshould be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future, should be storedin some place. For this step, the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost.As a result of this step, the search time is reduced.

TPM pillars

SEITON—OrganiseThe concept here is that “Each items has a place, and only one place”. The items shouldbe placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items easily, name plates and colouredtags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose, and heavy items occupy thebottom position in the racks.

SEISO—Shine the WorkplaceThis involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No looselyhanging wires or oil leakage from machines.

SEIKETSU—StandardizationEmployees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place/machines/pathways neat and clean. This standards are implemented for whole organization andare tested/inspected randomly.

SHITSUKE—Self-disciplineConsidering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of theorganization. This includes wearing badges, following work procedures, punctuality, dedication tothe organization etc.

PILLAR 2—JISHU HOZEN (AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE)This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenancetasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activityand technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent itfrom deteriorating.Steps in JISHU HOZEN1. Train the employees: Educate the employees about TPM, its advantages, JH advantagesand steps in JH. Educate the employees about abnormalities in equipments.2. Initial cleanup of machinesSupervisor and technician should discuss and set a date for implementing step 1.Arrange all items needed for cleaning.On the arranged date, employees should clean the equipment completely with thehelp of maintenance department.Dust, stains, oils and grease has to be removed.Following are the things that have to be taken care while cleaning. They are oilleakage, loose wires, unfastened nits and bolts and worn out parts.After clean up problems are categorized and suitably tagged. White tags are placewhere operators can solve problems. Pink tag is placed where the aid of maintenancedepartment is needed.Contents of tag are transferred to a register.Make note of area, which were inaccessible.Finally close the open parts of the machine and run the machine.3. Counter measuresInaccessible regions had to be reached easily, e.g., if there are many screw to opena flywheel door, hinge door can be used. Instead of opening a door for inspectingthe machine, acrylic sheets can be used.To prevent work out of machine parts necessary action must be taken.Machine parts should be modified to prevent accumulation of dirt and dust.4. Tentative standardJH schedule has to be made and followed strictly.Schedule should be made regarding cleaning, inspection and lubrication and it alsoshould include details like when, what and how.5. General inspectionThe employees are trained in disciplines like pneumatics, electrical, hydraulics,lubricant and coolant, drives, bolts, nuts and safety.This is necessary to improve the technical skills of employees and to use inspectionmanuals correctly.After acquiring this new knowledge the employees should share this with others.By acquiring this new technical knowledge, the operators are now well aware ofmachine parts.6. Autonomous inspectionNew methods of cleaning and lubricating are used.Each employee prepares his own autonomous chart/schedule in consultation withsupervisor.Parts which have never given any problem or part which don’t need any inspectionare removed from list permanently based on experience.Including good quality machine parts. This avoid defects due to poor JH.•Inspection that is made in preventive maintenance is included in JH.The frequency of cleanup and inspection is reduced based on experience.7. StandardizationUp to the previous stem only the machinery/equipment was the concentration.However, in this step the surroundings of machinery are organized. Necessaryitems should be organized, such that there is no searching and searching time isreduced.Work environment is modified such that there is no difficulty in getting any item.Everybody should follow the work instructions strictly.Necessary spares for equipments is planned and procured.8. Autonomous managementOEE and OPE and other TPM targets must be achieved by continuous improvethrough Kaizen.PDCA (Plan, Do, Check and Act) cycle must be implemented for Kaizen.

PILLAR 3—KAIZEN‘Kai’ means change, and ‘Zen’ means good (for the better). Basically Kaizen is for smallimprovements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization.Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. Theprinciple behind is that “a very large number of small improvements are more effective in anorganizational environment than a few improvements of large value.” This pillar is aimed atreducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thoroughprocedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activitiesare not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.Kaizen Policy1.Practice concepts of zero losses in every sphere of activity.2.Relentless pursuit to achieve cost reduction targets in all resources.3.Relentless pursuit to improve overall plant equipment effectiveness.4.Extensive use of PM analysis as a tool for eliminating losses.5.Focus of easy handling of operators.Kaizen TargetAchieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments,defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction.Tools used in Kaizen1.PM analysis2.Why-Why analysis3.Summary of losses4.Kaizen register5.Kaizen summary sheet.The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. TPM aims at maximizationof machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization. As one of the pillars ofTPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator and material and energy utilization,which is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Kaizen activities tryto thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses.

16 Major Losses in a Organization


1.Failure losses—Breakdown loss2.Setup/adjustment losses3.Cutting blade loss4.Start up loss5.Minor stoppage/Idling loss6.Speed loss—operating at low speeds7.Defect/rework loss8.Scheduled downtime loss9.Management lossLosses that impede equipment efficiency10.Operating motion lossLosses that impede human work efficiency11.Line organization loss12.Logistic loss13.Measurement and adjustment loss14.Energy loss15.Die, jig and tool breakage lossLosses that impede effective use of16.Yield lossproduction resources.

PILLAR 4—PLANNED MAINTENANCEIt is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for totalcustomer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 ‘families’ or groups, which wasdefined earlier.1.Preventive maintenance2.Breakdown maintenance3.Corrective maintenance4.Maintenance preventionWith planned maintenance, we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method anduse trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment.Policy1.Achieve and sustain availability of machines;2.Optimum maintenance cost;3.Reduces spares inventory; and4.Improve reliability and maintainability of machines.Target1.Zero equipment failure and breakdown;2.Improve reliability and maintainability by 50%;3.Reduce maintenance cost by 20%; and4.Ensure availability of spares all the time.Six Steps in Planned Maintenance1.Equipment evaluation and recoding present status;2.Restore deterioration and improve weakness;3.Building up information management system;4.Prepare time based information system, select equipment, parts and members and mapout plan;5.Prepare predictive maintenance system by introducing equipment diagnostic techniques;and6.Evaluation of planned maintenance.PILLAR 5—QUALITY MAINTENANCEIt is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing.Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like Focused Improvement.We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin toeliminate current quality concerns, then move to potential quality concerns. Transition is fromreactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance).QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the basicconcept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. The conditionsare checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard valuesto prevent defects. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defectsoccurring and to take counter measures before hand.Policy1.Defect free conditions and control of equipments;2.QM activities to support quality assurance;3.Focus of prevention of defects at source;4.Focus on poka-yoke (fool proof system);5.In-line detection and segregation of defects; and6.Effective implementation of operator quality assurance.Target1.Achieve and sustain customer complaints at zero;2.Reduce in-process defects by 50%; and3.Reduce cost of quality by 50%.Data RequirementsQuality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. For customer-end data, we have to get data on:1.Customer end line rejection; and2.Field complaints.In-house, data include data related to products and data related to process.Data Related to Product1.Product-wise defects;2.Severity of the defect and its contribution—major/minor;3.Location of the defect with reference to the layout;4.Magnitude and frequency of its occurrence at each stage of measurement;5.Occurrence trend in beginning and the end of each production/process/changes (likepattern change, ladle/furnace lining etc.); and6.Occurrence trend with respect to restoration of breakdown/modifications/periodicalreplacement of quality components.Data Related to Processes1.The operating condition for individual sub-process related to men, method, material andmachine;2.The standard settings/conditions of the sub-process; and3.The actual record of the settings/conditions during the defect occurrence.

PILLAR 6—TRAININGIt is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eagerto come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Education isgiven to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only ‘Know-How’ by theyshould also learn ‘Know-Why’. By experience they gain, ‘Know-How’ to overcome a problemwhat to be done. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they aredoing so. Hence, it becomes necessary to train them on knowing ‘Know-Why’. The employeesshould be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full ofexperts. The different phase of skills is:Phase 1: Do not know.Phase 2: Know the theory but cannot do.Phase 3: Can do but cannot teach.Phase 4: Can do and also teach.Policy1.Focus on improvement of knowledge, skills and techniques;2.Creating a training environment for self-learning based on felt needs;3.Training curriculum/tools/assessment etc. conducive to employee revitalization; and4.Training to remove employee fatigue and make work enjoyable.Target1.Achieve and sustain downtime due to want men at zero on critical machines;2.Achieve and sustain zero losses due to lack of knowledge/skills/techniques; and3.Aim for 100% participation in suggestion scheme.Steps in Educating and Training Activities1.Setting policies and priorities and checking present status of education and training;2.Establish of training system for operation and maintenance skill upgradation;3.Training the employees for upgrading the operation and maintenance skills;4.Preparation of training calendar;5.Kick-off of the system for training; and6.Evaluation of activities and study of future approach.

PILLAR 7—OFFICE TPMOffice TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM,PM). Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrativefunctions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing processes and procedurestowards increased office automation. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses. They are:1.Processing loss;2.Cost loss including in areas such as, procurement, accounts, marketing, sales leading tohigh inventories;3.Communication loss;4.Idle loss;5.Set-up loss;6.Accuracy loss;7.Office equipment breakdown;8.Communication channel breakdown, telephone and fax lines;9.Time spent on retrieval of information;10.Non availability of correct on-line stock status;11.Customer complaints due to logistics; and12.Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases.Office TPM and its Benefits1.Involvement of all people in support functions for focusing on better plant performance;2.Better utilized work area;3.Reduce repetitive work;4.Reduced inventory levels in all parts of the supply chain;5.Reduced administrative costs;6.Reduced inventory carrying cost;7.Reduction in number of files;8.Reduction of overhead costs (to include cost of non-production/non-capital equipment);9.Productivity of people in support functions;10.Reduction in breakdown of office equipment;11.Reduction of customer complaints due to logistics;12.Reduction in expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases;13.Reduced manpower; and14.Clean and pleasant work environment.

PILLAR 8—SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTTarget1.Zero accident,2.Zero health damage, and3.Zero fires.In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is notdamaged by our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the otherpillars on a regular basis.A committee is constituted for this pillar, which comprises representative of officers as wellas workers. The committee is headed by senior vice President (Technical). Utmost importanceto safety is given in the plant. Manager (safety) is looking after functions related to safety. Tocreate awareness among employees various competitions like safety slogans, quiz, drama, posters,etc. related to safety can be organized at regular intervals.Today, with competition in industry at an all time high, TPM may be the only thing thatstands between success and total failure for some companies. It has been proven to be a programthat works. It can be adapted to work not only in industrial plants, but also in construction, buildingmaintenance, transportation, and in a variety of other situations. Employees must be educated andconvinced that TPM is not just another ‘program of the month’ and that management is totallycommitted to the program and the extended time frame necessary for full implementation. Ifeveryone involved in a TPM program does his or her part, an unusually high rate of returncompared to resources invested may be expected.