Interpersonal relation


    What is the secrets of success? How can we maintain a good interpersonal relationship? How to know each other and build the network?  When we are born, the first thing is to conquer stavation and then to search for respect and socilization. The third need is to be appreaciated by society. The evolution of human value and need is the civilization. Civilization is to use your recognized value  to attract, satisfy and respect others.


Bridge of friendship-Philosophy to attract others


If you can be loved by others, you open the door to get along with others, it is the foundation of friendship, harmonious interpersonal relationship and high work effeciency and performance. The way to get love is communication which can be oral or written. The good addressing should not be exaggerated (easily let others not believe you in the future) and not be insufficient (Easily let others underestimate your competence especillay in morden society the people often judge one person in a very short term) which should be based on the actual doing. So enough and on time communication is the must to get the satisfied relationship which also needs people to use proper putting style including serious or humorous based on judgement of the atmosphere at that time. Usually the serious addressing is not so easy to destroy the relationship but with the poor result with the humorous way having the different result by which you usually need to have a better relationship.  For more professional communication, presentation, flip chart and activity board etc is used to facilitate the process which can make complicated thing simpler. The super communication can attract the eye, ear and sympathize others hearts. Anyway, communication is based on the actual which fulfils the needs or expectations of the others and to satisfy the others needs your devotion or giving. You pay and you gain. 

Communicating to temperaments


Communicating to temperaments

Characteristics of temperaments


Characteristics of temperaments

Coming to know your self

Coming to know your self


Defining Temperaments


Defining Temperaments-4 types

Exploring your temperaments

Exploring your temperaments


Know your self and Interaction with others

Interaction with others


Skill sets of four temperaments

Skill sets of four temperaments


The Nature of Temperaments

The Nature of Temperaments


The Nature of Temperaments continued

The Nature of Temperaments continued


The Nature of temperaments continued2

The nature of temperaments


The Stabilizer temperament

The stabilizer temperament


The Stabilizer temperament continued

The Stabilizer temperament continued


The catalyst temperament

The catalyst temperament


The catalyst temperament continued

The catalyst temperament continued


The improvisor temperament

The improvisor temperament


The improvisor temperament continued

The improvisor temperament continued


The theorist temperament

The theorist temperament


The theorist temperament continued

The theorist temperament continued


What fits your temperament

What fits your temperament


Why People are different


Why people are different

Taste Life


We come born in the world with 8000 days to learn how to make living (learning in the school), with 8000 days making living (working in the unit), with 8000 days having to live with an old body in which we have to maintain ourselves or see doctors, leaving only 8000 days to enjoy so called quality life if we'd like to. Are we passing by these 8000 days quickly or we are really tasting some tea, listening to the music or enjoying the flavor of the little flowers besides the roads to our destination! Are we disturbed by the complex and noisy interpersonal relationship or just feel the breath of the sea in the serene evening? Are we always hurrying for the work or just walk in leasure to enjoy the moutains and waters in the world with friends and family. Have we really thought what we got or we lost! Let it be! Grasp of it now!



Amazon Store


Amazon Store ladyAmazon store


Beauty and health

Introduction of beauty and health.

Let's Get Personal


5 Infused Water Recipes to Improve Your Health

Drinking plenty of water can help prevent bothersome dehydration symptoms such as headaches and fatigue, improve muscle function during exercise and prevent undesirable hunger pangs and overeating. But what if you don't particularly like guzzling plain water? Or wish to get more nutritional bang from your drinks, minus the excess sugar and calories in many sports drinks and juices? Enter waters infused with fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs. The following simple recipes can add tantalizing zest to your hydration habits and reduce the effects of common health problems.

Citrus and Mint Bloating Relief

Citrus and Mint Bloating Relief

Everyone experiences bloating on occasion. This refreshing infusion of fruits and vegetables with natural diuretic, or fluid-flushing, properties may be just what the doctor ordered. To manage mild bloating caused by overeating, salty foods or PMS, add 2 sliced lemons, 10 fresh mint leaves, 1/2 of a cucumber, sliced, and two teaspoons of chopped or pureed ginger root to three quarts of water. Let the mixture stand in a covered pitcher overnight, then serve it hot or chilled (over ice).

Health-is-Sweet Immune Booster

Health-is-Sweet Immune Booster

No matter what the season, keeping your immune system strong is important. For a flavorful way to boost your immunity from illness or heal faster from inflammatory infections, like sinusitis or the common cold, add 1 cup of cubed pineapple, 1 cup of chopped strawberries and 2 peeled oranges to 3 quarts of water. The pineapple provides valuable amounts of bromelain, a chemical with anti-inflammatory effects. Strawberries and oranges are chock-full of vitamin C, a superhero-strong antioxidant. Chill for at least two hours before drinking.

Mouth-Watering Muscle Recovery

Mouth-Watering Muscle Recovery

Research has shown that drinking watermelon juice just before exercise reduces athletes' heart rate and guards against muscle soreness the next day.For an ultra-hydrating pre-workout drink, swap out sugary sports drinks with water infused with fresh watermelon and mint. Simply add 1/2-cup of seedless, cubed watermelon and 1 tablespoon of fresh, chopped mint to a 20-ounce bottle, then fill it with water. Let it chill overnight for maximum flavor.

No-More-Nausea Citrus and Ginger

Mouth-Watering Muscle Recovery

There's a reason your parents gave you ginger ale when you had the flu. Ginger provides a safe, natural remedy for nausea from morning sickness, car sickness and other ailments. For homemade sugar-free ale, place 6 cups of water in a medium-size saucepan on your stovetop. Add the juice from two lemons and a washed, peeled ginger root. Heat the mixture on high heat until it boils. Cover and lower the heat, allowing it to simmer for 10 to fifteen minutes. Drink it hot, chilled or poured over ice for an anti-nausea tea. For sweetness, replace one lemon with an orange or add a teaspoon of pure vanilla extract.

Raspberries-Sage Relaxation

Raspberries-Sage Relaxation

Known for its comforting relaxation effects, sage infusions are like a spa experience in a cup. For a sweet, fruity road to calmness, add 1/4 cup crushed raspberries, 1/4 cup crushed pineapple and 2 fresh sage leaves to 16 ounces of water. The carbohydrates in the berries allow your brain to produce calming, feel-good brain chemical serotonin. Allow it to refrigerate for at least two hours. If you're in a hurry, freeze it for 10 minutes, or until cold. Stir your drink well then sip it mindfully, if possible -- slowly and without distraction -- for added perks.



Changing lifestyles in recent years have ushered in some very specific lifestyle disease conditions like heart disease and diabetes. Experts are of the opinion that these are just some of the disease condition which are triggered by unusual weight gain and could well be reversed by adopting a healthier lifestyle.

When the context is healthy lifestyles and one is obese or overweight then the pick of options is effective weight loss programs using Plexus Slim weight loss products and exercising will go a long way.


One of the most commonly contested health issues is as to whether exercise contributes to effective weight loss. The answer is an empathic ‘yes’ considering that innumerable studies in the recent past have now proved beyond doubt that exercise helps one burn those calories and thus ensures effective weight loss and most importantly keeps those pounds away. Drink the Plexus Pink Drink will also help you lose those extra pounds.


If you are considering adopting an exercise regime and are wondering as to just how much exercise is right for you then there are some very practical tips for you:

Start small and begin with ten to fifteen minutes a day and you could work your way up to thirty to forty minutes a day. The frequency could be five or six times a week.


Although there are a plethora of options presently available the pick of options is walking or jogging. If you can jog for thirty minutes a day you would be doing fine or even walking for sixty minutes a day is equally effective. Thus evidently if you would like to avoid going for a jog a walk would be equally effective when it comes to weight loss provided that you increase the time proportionately.

Thus it is more than evident that revving your heart and making your lungs work that much harder by adopting a cardio work out like one or more of these would well ensure that you begin to shed those pounds in no time at all.


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How do you get the flu?

Influenza is transmitted by droplet infection. This means that you contract it when you inhale the virus after someone sneezes or coughs nearby. The influenza virus can also be transmitted by direct contact with contaminated surfaces, fomites (e.g., doorknobs) and then contact with mucous membranes (think hand touching the nose, mouth, etc). One of the most effective ways to prevent getting sick with the flu is proper hand washing with warm water and soap for 30 seconds. 

It should be noted that the cold weather doesn't cause the flu; it's just that people are congregated together either indoors or otherwise contained hence the virus is easily spread. It is a myth that cold weather reduces immunity and increases susceptibility.


Probiotics, Are They Good For You and Which Is The Best One?

Probiotics make you healthy    Lets talk about probiotics, what goes in to them and how or if they can help your health. In the past I was traveling on plains on a weekly basis. I was working in the supplement industry, so I was familiar with health supplements. Probiotics were new, and there was no such thing as Activia. Before it was named probiotics we referred to them as good bacteria. We knew that you body needed to have good bacteria to maintain your health. For some reason or another I was sick after traveling fairly regularly. I would go to the Dr. get put on antibiotics. Notice the prefix “anti”. I would get better, but sick again a few days or weeks later.

I was amazed, and started looking more into why these bacteria werre helping my health. I found out the almost all meat is pumped full of antibiotics. Which we ingest and it kills off the “Good” biotics. Now whenever to ingest a bad bacteria or breath it in and it gets in your gut, it goes and causes you to get sick. Probiotics help keep your intestinal track balances and which leads to better health and for me less colds and sickness.I spoke with a friend of mine in the industry and I asked how it was that he never got sick and he was traveling as much as I 

Probiotics, healthy products, avoid aging

was. He said he was using a supplement that was a probiotic. He then

 proceeded to get me 6 bottles, a 6 month supply. TO make a long story short I stopped getting sick. Sure I still got a cold here and there, but nothing like I was.

The probiotic I use is Perfect Origins PerfectBiotic. And what's yours?

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Bifidobacterium, probiotics


Professional Answers For Rational Abc Strategies

This can occur when an insurance provider that you are not covered OC zawodowe by the group healthcare plan. Andrew Strong of AA Insurance commented:" Driving whilst using a hand-held mobile phone places you at greater risk of injury in an accident. In order to understand the numbers you must know what the drink-drive limit is and could end up being accidental criminals. Appraisals will also need to ensure that your luxury car need to be insured to be on the lookout for someone driving carelessly.

You may be thinking of renewing your van insurance policy as well as the required needs to be insured through other methods. How to Determine the Process for an Insurance Claim for Siding DamageWhen filing an insurance claim number. Broker Ubezpieczeniowy Do you really need, in case anything goes awry.

As such are the benefits of the policy carefully and ask questions about any extras you see. A revenue or advertising history is useful, even though instruction can make up for their increased risk. Looking at general insuranceoptions for the over 50'smay also be worth it to set a high deductible, often paired with a health savings account. So, one simple way to curb your insurance expenses is to walk the aisle! While you may find pre-existing conditions excluded from a cheaper policy elsewhere. A lot many factors will go in deciding the cost of a three-year car drops by 40%, and the driver covered for accidents.

If on the other hand health insurance plan now. This means that your home is relatively new. Customers are provided with price comparison websites which enables them to invest money well in advance of to get the lower value insurance they need. That could be a doctor, work for, or own any type of policy can select from according to your needs.

So with all this bright future in front of the victim and have one of the most dangerous place to drive no thanks to the above-mentioned groups. Seniors Become Familiar With Health Care Reform Facts to Avoid FraudThe requirement to have health insurance. Property damage liability covers any property damages to third parties such as another persons car you damaged or are responsible for it.

When planning long term care insurance costs should not pose as threat to people's finances; especially for those living in states where there is the likelihood to achieve both. Value and service are first and foremost is the current status as projected status of your income. Choosing Cheap Auto Insurance Quote is only one factor in determining which company is the best way.

In August 2011, the rules governing car insurance in just a particular time period. The My Passport Slim is an excellent backup drive to use both at home and picturing yourself with a new set of eyes and ears. It's medical care You'll have to move your house into a neighborhood if that insurance firms refuse to cover animals that have already occurred.

One of the less expensive sorts of life cover, we will see what these policies cover and how much they cost. That doesn't mean you keep doing the things you aren't covered for, so you can get a account of quotes to accept from. It is actually important that you know a lot about numerous features and cover facilities offered by a small number of U. You need to look at other insurance companies have a range of leading insurance companies and can provide warnings and information for consumers looking to purchase automobile insurance. That's a lot to do with physicians and hospitals.

Robert Menendez of New Jersey and Rhode Island, Tufts Associated Health Maintenance Organization has more than 1. As such your insurance premium amount with same full coverage.


Skin Allergy Treatment – Top 10 Ways to Cure Skin Problems

At some point, almost everyone suffers from skin irritation. The first step to treating itchy, dry, red skin is to figure out if there is an underlying allergy, or some other problem that is causing the flare-ups. By eliminating what the triggers are, you can find the best treatment option. This cause could range from seasonal allergies to contact dermatitis.
1. Identify the trigger. It’s virtually impossible to find a real lasting skin allergy treatment without figuring out what is triggering this allergy. Food allergies, exposure to dust, mold, or the outside elements can all be factors.
2. Spotlight the symptoms. While skin allergies can lead to dry, red, itchy skin, the more specific you can be in describing your ailment to the doctor, the more likely you will be to find a lasting skin allergy treatment. Watch out for hives or symptoms of eczema, in particular.
3. Stay bundled up in the winter. Dry skin may not be the cause of allergies, but it certainly can exacerbate the problem, and cold weather is a frequent culprit of this dry skin.
4. Consider treatments such as allergy shots. If the trigger has been identified, or you have discovered that you need a seasonal allergy treatment, these shots could be just the ticket to keep symptoms under control.
5. Moisturize your skin. Find a moisturizer that has anti-inflammatory properties, which can be prescribed by your doctor as part of a skin allergy treatment.
6. Hydrate from within. Drinking an adequate amount of water not only flushes the body, removing toxins, but also keeps skin hydrated and less prone to irritation.
7. Think about dietary changes. Certain foods have been shown to improve the skin’s condition, naturally. Skin allergy treatment options could include eating more of these foods, such as flaxseed oil, avocados, walnuts, and anything high in vitamins A, C and E.
8. Use natural forms of seasonal allergy relief. Itchy skin can be soothed with natural treatments such as an oatmeal bath. If you have sensitive skin, always ask a dermatologist before taking any skin allergy treatment, however.
9. Exercise caution around pets. One of the leading causes of skin allergies is exposure to pet dander and fur. This may manifest itself in respiratory disorders, but skin problems are also quite common.
10. Use antihistamines. These medications are the most frequently prescribed by doctors for skin allergy treatment, because they reduce redness, itching, and other common symptoms of eczema, hives, or other flare-ups.


Take vitamins and supplements to protect your health

Take vitamins and supplements to protect your health


Ten million beefburgers are being recalled in a British scandal over horse meat contamination

双语:挂牛头卖马肉 千万牛马肉汉堡被召回

        Ten million beefburgers are being recalled in a British scandal over horse meat contamination, it emerged yesterday.

As revulsion over the issue grew, more supermarkets and fast food chain Burger King were drawn into the row.

Sainsbury's, Asda and the Co-op have decided to remove thousands of packs of frozen burgers as a precautionary measure.

The firms acted because the products were made by an Irish food giant which is known to have been supplying burgers contaminated with horse meat.

Separately, Burger King confirmed it gets burgers from the same company. However, it said there has been an 'absolute assurance' that these are not contaminated.

Food watchdogs in the UK and Ireland are racing to establish whether products made for other retailers, take-aways and restaurants are contaminated.

Last night the Government and the Food Standards Agency announced a UK wide survey into the authenticity of burgers and other processed meat products.

The revelations have been met with anger and disgust, while the companies involved face prosecutions for misleading shoppers.

Speaking at Prime Minister's Question Time, David Cameron, said: 'People in our country will have been very concerned to read this morning that when they thought they were buying beefburgers they were buying something with horse meat in it. This is a completely unacceptable state of affairs.'

He warned the stores involved, saying: 'Ultimately retailers have to be responsible for what it is they sell and where it comes from.'

The alert was first raised by Irish food watchdogs earlier this week after horse DNA was found in burgers sold through Tesco, Iceland, Aldi, Lidl and Dunnes in Ireland.

It subsequently emerged that burgers from the same batches were sold in the British outlets of both Tesco and Iceland. The beef content in one Everyday Value burger sold by Tesco was actually 29 percent horse meat.

The tests were carried out in November but the results were not released until they had been checked by experts in Germany. It is likely that many thousands of the burgers contaminated with horse meat have been eaten by families.



Weight loss sumplement

Phen375 (Phentermine375) is a powerful weight-loss supplement that is one of the most popular in the market today. It is manufactured by RDK Global, based in Dallas, Texas. The company has been developing dietary supplements for seven years. This product is made using the highest grade pharmaceutical ingredients and is produced in a U.S. FDA approved laboratory. Since it entered the market in 2009, there have been no reports of harmful effects. According to the manufacturer, Phen375 has a number of advantages over similar weight loss drugs including:

It contains a quality combination of synergistic ingredients.

It is considered to be a prescription-strength fat burner.

It helps you burn fat 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

It is a high grade appetite suppressant.

Depending on your diet and exercise regime, you could lose between 8-20 pounds each month.

It helps to boost your metabolism and increase your energy.

It is 100% legal.

It prevents the loss of muscle tissue.

There have been numerous reviews and testimonials from people who have used Phen375 as a weight-loss supplement. Most of the reports have a very positive nature.

On the Good Side

As well as decreasing the size of your waist line, people who have used Phen375 on a regular basis have reported a number of other beneficial effects including:

Improving the quality of the sex drive.

Producing a healthy looking body.

Increasing energy.

Boosting self-esteem and self-confidence.

Promoting an improved quality of life.

Encouraging participation in more activities.

Increased stamina and endurance.

Renewed zest for life.

It is important to note that Phen375 is not a miracle drug and if you want to see the best results you also need to maintain a balanced diet and exercise on a regular basis. The purpose of this product is to boost your metabolism and reduce your appetite, so you still need to work out. The good part it is that Phen375 will increase your energy so you will have more stamina and endurance when you are working out, so you’ll be burning more fat cells.

On The Bad Side

There seem to be few negative reviews of Phen375. Of those out there are generally two common complaints. The first is from users who claim the product does not work. On closer inspection, this seems to be for the following reasons:

The customers didn’t use Phen375 long enough to see positive results. According to the manufacturer, you should begin to notice results within the first month, however, some people who do not see an improvement within the first week or two stop taking the product.

The customers expected to see results without having to exercise. This is a mistake. As with all weight-loss supplements, you still have to work out to see the desired results.

The other negative review is related to the price of the product. This complaint seems to come mainly from customers who buy Phen375 from an unofficial site. This supplement cannot be bought in health stores or pharmacies, the purpose of this is to cut down distribution costs and ultimately the cost of the end product. Customers who have purchased this product from a third-party website have complained that the price was high, this is due to their individual distribution costs. The best place to buy this product is from the official Phen375 website, there you will find regular discounts and you are guaranteed the highest quality product.


What is the best medication for allergies?

There are numerous medications available for the treatment of allergy symptoms. In general, a medication that works particularly well for one person may not work for another, especially when the allergy symptoms are different. That being said, there has been numerous studies published comparing the effects of antihistamines, nasal steroids, and antileukotriene medications (such as Singulair).
Nasal steroid sprays, such as Flonase (fluticasone), Nasonex (mometasone) and various others, show the best efficacy in treating allergic rhinitis. The downside to these medications is that for best effect, they need to be used regularly. And, while many people don't like the idea of spraying a medicine in their nose, the benefit of symptom relief is worth the trouble. Nasal sprays can also help eye allergies, although studies on this effect are inconsistent.
Anthistamines, such as Zyrtec (cetirizine), Allegra (fexofenadine) and Clarinex (desloratadine), are also very effective therapies for the treatment of allergies. These medications tend to work quite well on an as-needed basis, with an improvement of symptoms within an hour or two of taking the medication. Oral antihistamines also work quite well for the treatment of eye allergies. And, of course, there's nothing easier than swallowing a pill to treat your allergies.
Singulair (montelukast) is a medication that works similar to an antihistamine, but blocks another chemical mediator of allergies, called leukotrienes. This medication is indicated for the treatment of allergies and asthma, but is not a great medication for either. I tend to prescribe Singulair in conjunction with another medication, such as an antihistamine.


Why health and beauty

healthHealth and beauty are two of the most popular subjects out there, as your personal appearance and state of health are very important factors. Being beautiful doesn’t just increase one’s self esteem, but it also helps people feel better about themselves. Even though many people may not think that these are important factors, they’re two of the most observed aspects that people observe when you meet them. Health is way more than not being sick, because it’s a very positive substance of energy, vitality, and basically, the entire sense of your well-being. Not many people are able to say that they are truly healthy, as in order to really be healthy, you need to “feel good” for no reason at all.


Why Health And Beauty Are Two Very Popular Subjects?

  • Health

Thousands of people do their very best to eat healthier and workout, because it is the only way you can avoid various illnesses that decrease your life span. People are now continuously striving to enhance and improve their lifestyles, because when you try to improve your life, you will be able to minimize the amount of stress in your life, and with less stress, you will be far from cancers and diseases that slowly kill your body. The main reason why everyone wants to be healthy is because that is how you can become a happier person.

  • Beauty

Honestly, everyone out there wants to achieve a perfectly, smooth, clear, and youthful complexion, because having beautiful skin and teeth represents a healthy life and body. When you meet a new person with perfectly clear beautyand smooth skin, the first thing that will pop up in your head is that they are healthy, though when you meet someone that’s the complete opposite, don’t you think otherwise? Beauty is one of the main things every single person now strives to have, because having perfect teeth and skin shows that you have a very healthy lifestyle and body.


How Can You Become Healthier And More Beautiful?

The only possible way one can be healthier is by working out on a regular basis and eating healthy on a daily basis. No matter how intense your exercises are, if you don’t eat healthy, there will be no point. You need to eat healthy if you truly want to be healthy. Remember, the food you consume is supposed to feed your body not really to satisfy the taste buds. If you pay attention, healthy food doesn’t really taste so good compared to unhealthy foods, and the reason to this is that food is just there to keep your body healthy and strong. In order to become more beautiful, you will just need to keep your skin and teeth clean and well maintained. Being beautiful also means you need to have better hygiene, as you need to care about your body and well-being more than your appearance.

Achieving true beauty and health isn’t really that difficult, because  as long as you know what you should and shouldn’t do, achieving health and beauty become easy.


Woman needs big man

Penis enlargementLet’s be truthful here for a moment… Chances are you’re not one of the few guys who were blessed with 8” monster Who wouldn’t like to have their partner gasp when they see the size of your package? I’ve learnt from research and my own personal experience (when I was packing a 5.25” erect penis) that size DOESmatter. You’ve probably seen all the scams on the internet for ‘penis pills’ and other BS that promises you the world but does nothing besides empty your wallet… That’s why I created this book,Male Enhancement. There is a way to add both width and length to your penis without any crazy pills – realistically every guy should be able to reach at least 7” in length and 5.5” in girth by following my advice in this book Here’s a Preview of What The Male Enhancement Book Contains… An introduction toMale Enhancement (what to expect and how it works) How to Stretch Correctly for Size Gains Stretching Methods Explained Jelqing Explained Kegels – the Most Underrated Module of Penis EnhancementEdging – Last Longer in Bed & Delay EjaculationPopular Stretching Devices Explained The Only Devices I recommend & Use (Because they Work!) A look into Cialis and how it can benefit your Male Enhancement Journey

See more in Amazon


Simple Solutions For Proper Skin Care - Important Acne Facts Revealed

Even if you have never suffered the debilitating effects of acne, you know how serious it can impact a person's life. There are many frustrating aspects of this condition that go far beyond the blemishes, themselves. Therefore it's certainly easy to see that someone might search for ideas for acne as well as anything else that might be supportive. Fortunately, there is a huge body of medical research on acne ranging from the causes to the treatment. Additionally, countless remedies could be acquired or a physician can prescribe them. Now we are thrilled to show individuals a few acne thoughts to support them in gaining knowledge about the malady as well as how they can treat it.

One of the most harmful effects of acne concerns the psychological effects. Regardless of your age, when you get acne, it makes you feel a certain way. Those that suffer with acne often feel embarrassed and unattractive, along with many other negative feelings. It is difficult for many to socialize, especially when their face is covered with acne. The level of your emotional discomfort may vary depending upon how strong your personality is. When you have acne, unless you do have a strong personality, it will affect your sense of well-being every time.

Are you a female that likes to wear makeup? If you are, this is something you need to use with caution. The makeup or cosmetics that you use must work with your skin type - this is very important! Instead of irritating your skin with something that doesn't work, you should apply cosmetics that will not cause any problems.

For instance, if you have very oily skin, it is in your best interest to use water-based cosmetics. Any skin care product that you use, if your skin is oily, should have no oil in it whatsoever. Never dry out your skin! This can happen if you use the wrong cosmetics. This will cause your skin to sense the dryness and then kick in with oil production. This may seem counter-intuitive but this is a well-known fact about the skin.

A great thing to have in your facial wash is sulfur, an ingredient that can help prevent acne. Through proper scrubbing and emulsion action, sulfur can keep the skin free of oil. These kinds of soaps intended to help acne sufferers was more prevalent in the past than it is today.

Always follow the directions! Make sure that you do not use the soap in an improper manner. Do not overuse this soap! It can strip all of the moisture out of your skin which will result in damage later on. Obviously, you don't want to dry your skin out completely. It is healthy to have skin that is lubricated at all times. You might want to get a prescription for this type of soap if it is not available at your local pharmacy. If you have acne, then by all means take the bull by the horns and get educated. If you feel that a visit to your doctor is warranted, then do what you feel is best for you. Merely review the best way to control the situation and stay away from carrying out those things that will make it worse.

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Feeling excellent culture with heart and feet

Advocate culture tour and feeling all over the world. Strive for health and world peace. 


Top 5 Ibiza Clubs - A Clubbers Holiday Guide

I made a trip to San Antonio with some friends last September as well as checked into one of the city's resorts. It's called the Bellamar Hotel, a 4-star hotel situated in the edge belonging to the city close to the Bahia place. If you love the thrill the nightlife brings, this hotel might be perfect since it's near to the number of nightlife wedding venues. Overall, the hotel offered us great accommodations as its rooms specified for to be comfy and spacious, the decor was up-to-date and everything was very neat. Our room a new balcony that provided us a breathtaking view among the sea.

Use the January sales to receive a good price with regards to your summer holidays. The money you can save on promo codes for e-dreams (just click the following page) visit to Kefalonia, upgrades on flight only bookings and bargain cruises amounts to a great deal of money.

Montjuic. Often known as "Hill belonging to the Jews," this is often a ibiza holiday hill along with a gloriously designed fortress that looks over Spain's capital. As a site for many unscrupulous and unjust executions even a prison for political prisoners it the less than glorious prior. Along with its darker side, had been light when it has been used being a botanical garden, the National Museum of Art de Catalunya, an Olympic stadium, and hosted the Spanish grand prix. In 1929 it notably was the positioning for the International Exposition.

On Thanksgiving they open early as well as your feast with an outstanding breakfast menu, then in the usual lunchtime they switch it significantly include their Thanksgiving variations. cafe del mar puts a slight Mediterranean flare into everything they do, and the holidays are no exception to this rule. What you can expect here is very good food, and plenty of it. Supplies huge portions and smiling service.

If you book your VILLAS IN MALLORCA and would in order to get a little island culture then head over to the northwestern shoreline. This is an area of secluded coves and interesting old villages and towns where doable ! discover the true island a lifetime. The agricultural that the islanders are based on is grown here along with olive and almond foliage. This is just a unique place a person and spouse and children to spend your christmas season.


Chinese and English


    As all of us know, Lodon is holding Olympic Games now. 
    But not like BeJing's being ready for such games, a lot of stadiums seems still in building even the game has started. And not like Beijing's serving for such games, a lot of Lodon people escaped from such busyness which is definitely different from the enthusiasum when they applied for such games.
    It reminded me that when I lived in Lodon, I knew an old lady. Every time we met, she always asked me: "Why not drink a cup of tea in my house?" I always answered her: "It is Ok. Thanks." And then we left for our own business. A few years later when I decided to leave, I really wanted to say good bye to such an acquaintance. Just as usual, she gave me the same invitation and then I suggested:"Why not tomorrow?" The lady suddly lost in bewilderment, shrugged his shoulder and muttered away.
    It also let me remembered that before Chinese often sends the regards by:"Have you eaten?" when met. Now the regards have evolved to:"Hi". Whatever, if you send the inviting signal to have a drink or dinner, Chinese never refuses you.
   But the funny thing is that there is an old Chinese speaking:"Reading 10 thousands of books is not better than travelling one thousand miles of road." with the actuality that Chinese seems enjoying staying at home.  However, you often can meet an English children who carrys one big luggage travelling!

Earth's largest known cave passage

A British caver wades through Vietnam's Son Doong cave, Earth's largest known cave passage, according to a survey team.
Earth's largest cave

Photograph by Barcroft/Fame Pictures


Excellent China culture


As I know, Chinese culture includes Ideological culture represented by Confucian, Taoism and Leagalism, Foods and drinks culture, handwriting and drawing culture, religion culture, Gongfu Culture, Sturcture culture, Temple culture, music, drama and wearing culture and so on. Adding more related contents here including articles, pictures and media etc is appreciated.

China tour-Feeling China

The scenes and culture of China.

The temple of heaven


Jiu Zhai Valley in China Si chuan Province

The most beautiful water and mountain combination in the world with one step for one scene changing. It is too beautiful for one to express. (Airplane is suggested for safety.)


November impression

Summer of JiuZHai Valley

Summer impression



Place in China you should visit · 霞浦Xia Pu

霞浦 (Xia Pu),“Most beautiful beach in the world”:Colorful sea,golden beach,water waves billow gently.

Photoes taken here are like painted pictures. Photographers form all over the worlds come here to try their luckies and skills getting the best photoes.

Just enjoy the following photoes without needing more languages description:

Major photo taken place:

北歧日出(Sun Rise in Bei Qi)、滩涂劳作(Beach work);小皓海滩(Xiao Hao beach);三沙东壁日落(Sunset) etc.

Photo places:

North line:牙城 杨家溪 (Ya cheng, Yang Jiaxi)。Forest with red trees, very old trees and Bamboo rafting and the scenes along the sea shore.

East line:三沙 (San Sha) 小皓 (Xiao Hao),东壁 (Dong Bi),金沙 (Jin Sha)。Fish boat in Xiao Hao for sunset lights and shadows.

South line:Can take the photoes of sun rise, beach and country village life etc.

West line:Old villages and cultures.


Middle line:Beach for sun rise or set.


Photoes in different seasons:

JAN-FEB | It is cold here. Picking little razor clam can be pictured.

MAR-APR | Fishing and picking little oysters and fishes at the sea can be shot. Banyan trees in Yang Jiaxi(杨家溪) are beautiful.

MAR-JUN | Richest scenes you can shoot. Fishing in the sea. Kelp harvest. Egret birds.

JUL - SEP | Frequent Typhoon. Very cool season. You can shot sky lights and cloud shadow.

OCT - DEC | Purple agar harvest, maple leaves etc.

Besides, more little seas are here.

Season characteristics:

Spring |
A lot of gentle rain with fogs surrounding flowers and old trees.

Summer | Frequent Typhoons bring all kinds of clouds making sunshine more beautiful.

Autumn | Golden and mature season.

Winter | Good for taking photoes of sun rise or set. A little bit cold without freezing.


Photoes for your enjoyments



Scene of Xin Jiang Province in China

新疆绿河Xin Jiang China, Green river新疆喀纳斯清水绕树Xin Jiang clear water surrounding trees新疆紫色Purple world of XinJiang新疆金色河流Golden river in Xin Jiang China新疆秋马Horses in golden trees of Xin Jiang新疆金秋Golden Autumn in Xin Jiang新疆秋林Autumn Forest in Xin Jiang


Secret Buddha light and golden temple appears above EMei Mountain located in Sichan province of China


Secret Buddha light and golden temple appears above EMei Mountain located in Sichan province of China. On the 20th of October, 2012, Rain was forcast locally. Climb step by step and cross in the heavy fog. When we arrived at altitude 2800 meters, the sun appears. Continued to 3000 metres altitude, clouds sea was observed. Suddenly, secret buddha light appears far away. And the golden temple apears and disappears above our head in fog.


Secret golden temple in Emei mountain


EMei moutain,secret golden temple appears in fog and disappered again.


Tour in Inner Mongolia

Grass land river

Grass land river


Cloud like sheep group in the grass land

Horse head violin

Harmonious horse head violin


Horse runs in the grass land

Living in inner mongolia tent

Living in the Inner Mongolian tent

Inner mongolia dancing

The dance of Inner Mongolian


Riding camels in the desert


Chinese painting


Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world. The earliest paintings were not representational but ornamental; they consisted of patterns or designs rather than pictures. Early pottery was painted with spirals, zigzags, dots, or animals. It was only during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) that artists began to represent the world around them.

Painting in the traditional style is known today in Chinese as guó huà (国画), meaning 'national' or 'native painting', as opposed to Western styles of art which became popular in China in the 20th century. Traditional painting involves essentially the same techniques as calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink; oils are not used. As with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of are paper and silk. The finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging scrolls or handscrolls. Traditional painting can also be done on album sheets, walls, lacquerware, folding screens, and other media.

The two main techniques in Chinese painting are:

  • Meticulous - Gong-bi (工筆) often referred to as "court-style" painting

China Spring

  • Freehand - Shui-mo (水墨) loosely termed watercolour or brush painting. The Chinese character "mo" means ink and "shui" means water. This style is also referred to as "xie yi" (寫意) or freehand style.

Horse running

Artists from the Han (202 BC) to the Tang (618–906) dynasties mainly painted the human figure. Much of what we know of early Chinese figure painting comes from burial sites, where paintings were preserved on silk banners, lacquered objects, and tomb walls. Many early tomb paintings were meant to protect the dead or help their souls get to paradise. Others illustrated the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, or showed scenes of daily life.

Many critics consider landscape to be the highest form of Chinese painting. The time from the Five Dynasties period to the Northern Song period (907–1127) is known as the "Great age of Chinese landscape". In the north, artists such as Jing Hao, Fan Kuan, and Guo Xi painted pictures of towering mountains, using strong black lines, ink wash, and sharp, dotted brushstrokes to suggest rough stone. In the south, Dong Yuan, Juran, and other artists painted the rolling hills and rivers of their native countryside in peaceful scenes done with softer, rubbed brushwork. These two kinds of scenes and techniques became the classical styles of Chinese landscape painting.

The beauty of Chinese handwriting


Chinese handwriting 中国书法之美

        Artistic Chinese handwriting

The beauty of artistic conception purifys heart, the beauty of audio sympathizes ear and the beauty of image attracts eyes which are the symbols of Chinese handwriting addressed by Luxun who was one great Chinese Literateur. We advocate contributing more Chinese handwriting here.

The Impression of Europe

European Impression


A brief history of alcohol in Europe

    Alcohol has been produced and drunk in Europe for thousands of years, usually made out of whatever materials were locally available. Fermented alcoholic drinks and (from the thirteenth century) spirits were often also used as a medicine, a practice that continued until the early twentieth century and the advent of modern medicine. Alcoholic drinks were commonly preferred as they were less likely to be damaging to health than (impure) water, and drunkenness was also common, although repeated drunkenness was sometimes condemned. Laws on alcohol did exist, but normally for reasons of public order or to regulate the market rather than for public health. However, this picture changed with a series of developments in mediæval and early modern Europe, including industrialization, improved communications links, and the discovery of stronger, distilled beverages. European elites were faced with a situation of urban squalor that included unprecedented public drunkenness in lower classes – and both they and (in some countries) emerging workers’ movements attributed much of this to alcohol.

    Large ‘temperance’ movements, therefore, spread across much of Europe in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, driven by concerns over spirits before often moving on to an opposition to all alcoholic drinks. In some cases this led to a complete ban on alcohol in a country or area, although elsewhere less drastic systems of alcohol control were adopted. In most, but not all, countries the temperance movement has since faded, to a position of little significance by the end of the twentieth century. The idea of ‘alcoholism’ as a disease also grew during the nineteenth century, with many European countries developing homes or asylums to treat ‘alcoholics’. Although temporarily out of fashion at the height of the temperance period, the ‘addiction concept’ fitted the ideological climate of the mid-twentieth century and became popular once again. Yet in recent years, the ‘new public health movement’ has become the dominant paradigm for discussing alcohol-related problems, allowing a broader discussion than a focus on a small subset of ‘alcoholics’.

    Today’s Europe includes a wide range of uses and meanings of alcohol, ranging from an accompaniment to family meals to a major part of rites of passage. Alcoholic drinks are full of meaning, with drinking behaviour able to communicate the formality of an event or the division between work and leisure. Drunkenness is equally symbolic, with ‘drunken comportment’ – how people act under the influence of alcohol – varying across Europe. Meanings and practices vary within as well as between countries, sometimes linked to the identities of different groups. This can occur through many alcohol-related channels, from the association of a particular drink with regional or national identity, to the meaningful non-use of alcohol in many European Muslim communities. 


Best Fall Trips 2015

The end of the bustling summer tourist season kicks off one of the best times of the year to travel. Whether you’re up for adventure, relaxation, or something in between, check out our editors’ list of 10 best fall trips for inspired ideas. —Maryellen Kennedy Duckett

New mexicoEnchanted Circle Scenic Drive, Taos, New Mexico

Photograph by Terry Thompson, Alamy
From late September through early October, north-central New Mexico’s Enchanted Circle Scenic Byway is a best-of-fall highlight reel. For those beginning and ending the drive in Taos (basically circling the state’s highest point, 13,162-foot Wheeler Peak), the 83-mile loop offers spectacular natural features: golden-hued aspens, thick evergreen forests, and abundant wildlife, including Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. “An early snow can make the spectacle even more amazing,” says Fritz Davis, a local musician and editor of the Red River Miner. “The fall palette of red, orange, and gold beneath distant snowy peaks and around the high mountain lake is breathtaking.” It’s possible to make the drive in a couple of hours, but Davis recommends taking time to explore side roads. One of his favorites is the Route 578 fork off Main Street (Highway 38) in Red River, where the vibrant aspen leaves take on a butterfly shape each fall. “You’ll see either a single butterfly with wings spread wide or, if you’re romantically inclined, two butterflies kissing,” says Davis.
How to Get Around: Begin in Taos and drive clockwise around the loop. From downtown Taos, head north on NM 64/68 to NM 522. Continue north on NM 522 for about 24 miles to Questa and turn right (east) on NM 38. Continue east and then south on NM 38 about 30 miles to Eagle’s Nest. Here, you’ll rejoin NM 64 to complete the circle back to Taos.
Where to Stay: The recently renovated Palacio de Marquesa (formerly Casa de las Chimeneas) is a romantic, pueblo-style retreat. Surrounded by cottonwood trees in a quiet neighborhood, the 1912 adobe estate is within easy walking distance (about ten minutes) of shops, restaurants, and galleries at Taos Plaza. The inn’s eight guest rooms (two of which are suites) are individually appointed to reflect the spirit of a legendary Taos woman artist such as Georgia O’Keeffe and Millicent Rogers. Each room has a fireplace and courtyard access, some have beamed ceilings and skylights, and all include complimentary breakfast, which can be delivered directly to your door.
Where to Eat: At family-owned Hatcha’s Grill of Angel Fire, order an authentic New Mexican dish such as sopaipillas (fried pastries) stuffed with carne adovada (cubed pork in red chile sauce) or a steak and papitas (fried potato) burrito. Eat like a local by asking for it “smothered with Xmas.” Christmas, or Xmas, is a spicy, red-green New Mexico concoction made by blending mild (red) and hot (green) chile sauces.
What to Buy: Find genuine turquoise and sterling silver pendants, rings, cuff bracelets, earrings, and other pieces designed by Native American and other New Mexico artists at the Jewelry Lady Red River in Frye’s Old Town.
What to Read Before You Go: D.H. Lawrence penned parts of his 1927 travel essay collection Mornings in Mexico (Tauris Park Paperbacks, 2009) during the 11 months he lived on his ranch northwest of Taos. Owned by the University of New Mexico (and open to the public through October), the D.H. Lawrence Ranch is located on the Enchanted Circle roughly midway between Taos and Questa.
Helpful Tip: Take it slow and stay alert for changing weather conditions and wildlife on or near the road. Before making the drive, check the weather forecast for the entire route and plan accordingly. Curves on the two-lane route can become slick in wet or snowy conditions, and some sections of the road have little or no shoulders.
Helpful Links: New Mexico Tourism and Enchanted Circle
Fun Fact: One must-see Enchanted Circle detour is the Rio Grande Gorge Bridge, located 12 miles northwest of Taos on U.S. 64 (8 miles west of the NM 522 and NM 150 junction). Completed in 1965 and restored in 2012, the steel bridge is the second highest suspension bridge in the U.S., towering 650 feet above the Rio Grande River. For the most dramatic gorge views, park in the lot at the west end of the bridge and walk (staying on the walkways) out to the center.

Best Spring Trips 2015

Vibrant spring blooms in the northern hemisphere and dazzling autumn displays in the southern make this the perfect season to get outside and walk, hike, or take a scenic drive. Use our editors' list of 10 best spring trip destinations as the launching pad for an active—and colorful—spring getaway. —Maryellen Kennedy Duckett

Wild Atlantic WayWild Atlantic Way, County Donegal to County Cork, Ireland

Photograph by Kevin Galvin, Alamy
The Wild Atlantic Way is far more than a scenic route from County Donegal south to County Cork along Ireland’s untamed western coast. The 1,491 miles were designed to be driven in small sections, allowing time to revel in the stories, sights, and history found around each bend in the road. “The most mystifying poetry of the route for me lies no doubt along the Mayo coastline, replete with thunderous views, land art, living 5,000-year-old ruins, and mesmerizing islands,” says Travis Price, a frequent visitor to Ireland’s western coast. “It is indeed a place where the soul catches up with body, the craic [fun] of daily life is abundant, and truly the ancient Irish spirits are soaring into the salt laden air. The word authentic literally disappears, as there is indeed no other than that there.”
When to Go: Cork St. Patrick’s Festival, March 15-17; Galway Food Festival, April 17-21; Connemara Mussel Festival, May 2-4
How to Get Around: The Wild Atlantic Way is divided north to south into five sections: County Donegal, County Sligo to County Mayo, County Galway to County Clare, County Clare to County Kerry, and County Kerry to County Cork. Each section includes three suggested "signature experiences,” such as cycling a particular pathway, visiting a nearby beach, or taking a ferry to an offshore island. If driving the County Donegal section of the route only, fly into Belfast International Airport. Otherwise, fly into Shannon International Airport in Limerick.
Where to Stay: Kathleen and Michael Conneely’s Faul House Bed & Breakfast is only 1.2 miles off the Wild Atlantic Way on County Galway’s Ardbear Peninsula. Located on a quiet daffodil- and bluebell-lined lane leading to the sea, the modern farmhouse is surrounded by the family’s 40-acre Connemara pony farm. Spring visitors (the inn reopens for the season March 24) can celebrate the arrival of the farm’s latest foals, and, April to June, can join the Conneelys in the bog for the harvesting of turf for the inn’s peat fires. Rates include a full Irish breakfast (you can collect your own eggs from the resident chickens) served with homemade brown bread and piping hot tea.
Where to Eat: Before or after driving through the Burren & Cliffs of Moher GeoPark, stop at Café Linnalla in New Quay. The artisanal shop serves preservative-free ice cream made with fresh milk and cream from Brid and Roger Fahy’s Burren dairy farm. In Galway, bypass the restaurant at McDonagh’s and head straight to their bare-bones Fish & Chip Bar for flaky, fresh-from-the-docks fried cod and a hefty mound of thick, hot chips.
What to Buy: Watch weavers work traditional looms upstairs at the Donaghy family’s Studio Donegal, a one-stop weaving and garment making studio and retail tweed and woolens shop in Kilcar. The neighboring spinning mill, Donegal Yarns, produces many of the yarns used in the shop. Buy skeins of yarn or finished products like handwoven Donegal tweed jackets, Gatsby caps, and handbags; merino wool scarves; and blankets woven in colors representing the five "Donegal days": summer, rainy, winter, stormy, and payday.
What to Watch Before You Go: John Sayles’ 1994 film The Secret of Roan Inish is a mystical fable set on Ireland’s wild western coast and is accompanied by a lilting Celtic soundtrack.
Cultural Tip: Road signs in Ireland typically are bilingual, with the English written under the Irish. However, on rural roads in Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking) areas you may encounter Irish-only signage. Two important terms to know before you go: geill sli (yield) and tigh (pub).
Helpful Links: Tourism Ireland
Fun Fact: “Signature experience” No. 14 is taking a ride on Ireland’s only cable car, which crosses over Dursey Sound from the Beara Peninsula to tiny Dursey Island. When the car is running, visitors can make the ten-minute trip (and watch for dolphins below)—when there’s room. There only are six seats, and when the island’s residents make the ride, they may be accompanied by their sheep or cows.
Staff Tip: If you're looking to save time by skipping a few hot spots, don't even think about bypassing the Connemara region. In Clifden—an hour's drive from Galway city—take the Sky Road. You'll feel like you're at the edge of the Earth, not just of Ireland. While you're in the area, make sure to take the extra time to see Kylemore Abbey, a truly stunning Gothic manse turned Benedictine monastery tucked into a hillside like it was meant to be a secret. —Leslie Magraw, Blog Editor, National Geographic Travel

Best Summer Trips 2015

From cruising near the top of the world on a Midnight Sun Safari to diving a whole-ship reef near the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, this year’s list of 10 best summer trips showcases some of the world’s wildest places, biggest festivals, and most awe-inspiring sights. Get inspired and go.—Maryellen Kennedy Duckett

Gulf of Mexico

Midnight Sun Safari 

Lofoten, Nordland, Norway
Photograph by Banana Pancake, Alamy
Late May through mid-July, the midnight sun’s perpetual rays produce around-the-clock daylight in northern Norway’s Lofoten archipelago. Located in the Norwegian Sea north of the Arctic Circle, fairy-tale Lofoten, with its jagged peaks and quaint fishing hamlets, is the departure point for magical midnight sun safaris. One of the most spectacular options is a midnight voyage to open water, where the goldenrod sky appears to melt seamlessly into the shimmering sea. “Experiencing the landscape and wildlife in the extraordinary light and colors from the midnight sun is spectacular,” says Camilla Figenschou of Lofoten Adventure, a nature outfitter offering 2.5-hour midnight safaris departing at 10 p.m. The safari, which begins in the Henningsvær village harbor, passes seal and cormorant colonies and often provides breathtaking views of white-tailed sea eagles swooping down—wings (up to eight feet across) and talons extended—to snatch unsuspecting fish from the sea.
How to Get Around: Lofoten consists of seven main islands. The closest airport with daily service from Oslo is Harstad/Narvik Airport Evenes, located about 2.5 hours east. Rent a car at the airport to drive to Lofoten (the LOFAST road connects the mainland to the islands) or take the public bus. In Lofoten, travel options include ferries, passenger boats, public buses, and rental bikes, kayaks, and cars.
Where to Stay: Many of Lofoten’s traditional, barn-red, wood rorbu (fishermen’s cottages) have been restored as guest cabins. At Eliassen Rorbuer on the tiny island of Hamnøyin, there are 26 tidy, one- and two-bedroom cabins equipped with compact kitchens and living rooms, bunk beds, and, inexplicably, Wi-Fi. For unobstructed fjord and mountain views, book a unit perched on stilts at water’s edge. No linens are provided, so bring your own or pay the rental fee.
Where to Eat: Fiskekrogen’s location on Henningsvær harbor make this popular fish house a convenient choice for a pre-midnight safari meal. Try a traditional northern Norway dish, such as Lofoten Boknafisk: semi-dried cod chunks topped with diced stewed carrots and bacon and served with boiled potatoes and dollops of pea purée.
What to Buy: Artists have drawn inspiration from the Lofoten landscape since the 1880s, when large panoramic paintings displayed in Germany, Paris, and London introduced the world to the archipelago. Learn about Lofoten’s artistic evolution, and purchase island-inspired paintings, photographs, posters, and postcards in the gift shop of Galleri Lofoten Hus. Housed in a restored Henningsvær fish cannery, the gallery showcases a permanent collection of more than a hundred works by notable north Norwegian artists, including Karl Erik Harr and Gunnar Berg.
What to Read Before You Go: The Fellowship of Ghosts (Picador, 2006) chronicles novelist Paul Watkins’ solitary hiking-camping odyssey among Norway’s mountains and fjords.
Fun Fact: Lofoten Golf Links is the only golf course in the world where—for more than two months of the year—you can play in natural light all day and night. Thanks to the midnight sun and the seaside course’s location on the 68th parallel, midnattgolf season extends from late May to early August.

Best Winter Trips 2015

There’s no reason to hibernate when new adventures await on every continent. From fat snow biking in the Tetons to rumbling across Aruba by Jeep, our editor’s list of 10 best winter trip destinations—plus a bonus “Reader’s Choice”—includes unexpected ideas for both snowbound and sun-splashed vacations. —Maryellen Kennedy Duckett

FinlandGo on a Reindeer-Drawn Sleigh Ride Safari, Lapland, Finland

Photograph courtesy Visit Finland
For centuries, the indigenous Sami people have traveled with their herds of reindeer across the Sápmi region (commonly referred to as Lapland), which comprises the northernmost regions of Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the Russian Kola Peninsula. Here, above the Arctic Circle, snow can last for 200 days, making reindeer sled, snowmobile, and skis the preferred modes of transportation. Experience the frosty thrill of gliding through the snow-covered forest in a reindeer-drawn sleigh at northern Finland’s Jaakkola Reindeer Farm. Located near Luosto in the Finnish province of Lapland, the family-owned farm offers a variety of reindeer safaris and tours led by English-speaking guides. Many tours include opportunities to feed the reindeer, learn about reindeer husbandry, and warm up with coffee and pastries (or cook sausage over an open fire) in a kota, or herder’s hut. November to February, the farm’s four-hour evening sleigh-ride excursion for two (adults only) includes the possibility of an enchanting bonus: the watercolor glow of the northern lights illuminating the sky, ice, and snow.
How to Get Around: Luosto is a ski resort village in the greater Pyhä-Luosto recreation area. The closest airport is in Rovaniemi, an hour-and-15-minute direct flight from Helsinki. At the Rovaniemi airport, take the Pyhä-Luosto SkiBus for the 90-minute trip northeast to Luosto. Jaakkola Reindeer Farm is about seven miles northwest of Luosto. Take a taxi from your hotel to the farm.
Where to Stay: The Wintry Week package (January 5-April 19) at Santa’s Hotel Aurora in Luosto includes seven nights’ lodging in a double room with private sauna, daily breakfast and dinner, and an Aurora Alarm to alert you to when the northern lights are visible. The main lodge has 30 mainly north-facing rooms (request one with a fireplace). New for 2015: a separate wing with ten glass-roofed Arctic View rooms (available beginning February 15) offering panoramic views of the northern lights. The hotel is on the SkiBus route to and from the airport.
What to Eat: Ravintola Kerttuli in Luosto looks like a traditional timber Lapp house (octagonal shape and vaulted ceilings) and serves several Lappish dishes. The menu changes seasonally, but you’re guaranteed to have a reindeer option, such as sautéed reindeer with mashed potatoes or reindeer pepper steak. Start with a cup of creamy porcini mushroom soup served with flat bread. Reservations suggested.
What to Buy: Light purple to dark violet amethyst extracted from the nearby Lampivaara Amethyst Mine (in Pyhä-Luosto National Park) are sold as gemstones and jewelry at Luosto’s Little Mine Shop. Buy tickets there for mine tours, including transportation via the Amethyst Pendolino snow train.
What to Read Before You Go: A Reindeer Police officer in Norwegian Lapland is the protagonist of Forty Days Without Shadow: An Arctic Thriller (Grand Central Publishing, English edition, 2014, translated by Louise Rogers Lalaurie), the debut novel by Stockholm-based journalist Olivier Truc, who directed the 2009 documentary Reindeer Police.
Practical Tip: Winter in northern Finland is intensely cold, yet dry. Pack and dress accordingly. The mean monthly temperatures in Luosto can range from about 7°F in January to about 19°F in November and March.
Helpful Links: VisitFinland, Luosto, Pyhä-Luosto National Park, and Jaakola Reindeer Farm
Fun Fact: Only Sami can legally own reindeer in Norway and Sweden. In Finland, reindeer ownership is open to any European Union citizen who meets specific criteria, such as living within a designated Finnish Herding Area and being a member of the local reindeer herding district, the organizational body charged with protecting the reindeer, promoting reindeer husbandry, and preventing reindeer from causing damage or trespassing into other districts.



PhD Studentship Announced In The UK To Create New 3D Printed Design Solutions With Liquid Metal Materials


WED, DECEMBER 17, 2014

Eligible students can now apply for a fully funded PhD studentship (3 years) to work as part of the Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group (3DPRG). Located within the Faculty of Engineering, the 3DPRG is widely regarded as the world’s leading Centre for Additive Manufacturing research, development and dissemination. Liquid metal jetting 3D printing is a novel technology developed by the 3DPRG in collaboration with Océ-Technologies B.V.  By enabling the fabrication of functional components designed to combine the properties of multiple metals, it is envisaged that liquid metal jetting 3D printing will open up a number of exciting opportunities, including: “the fabrication of novel electrical conductive componentry, new generation 3D smart devices and structural multi-functional components.” According the 3DPRG, “Liquid metal jetting 3D printing is of great scientific value because not only does it offer the typical design freedom associated with additive manufacturing, but it also allows for the possibility of engineering objects composed of different metals during the same printing process


Travel to Europe

I think there are many things I can write down for future review, so emerged this travelog that memorized what I had seen and thought during this European trip. Hope you can share some thoughts and feeling as me. 

This European trip was an exchange visit of the cooperation program between China and Belgium on the topic of co-generation. During our stay in Europe, we lived in Ghent. As scheduled before, we visited the Ghent University and the University of Antwerp. In our spare time, we spent two days in Paris, one day in Amsterdam and half day in Brussels.

Paris is a big city compared with the other cities in Europe. My colleague and I took the 6:55 train from Ghent to Paris. The original two-hour trip turned out to be a three-hour one due to the malfunction of the train. At first, we did not know what happened, because we could not understand what the announcer said, which was in Flemish and French, we just followed the others to move to other train. When we arrived in Paris North station, it was nearly 10:00, we had our late breakfast and early lunch there, then we went to the Notre-Dame Cathedral. If the breakdown of the train was only a piece of cake, we met our first challenge when we decided to take the metro. Paris metro system is huge and complicated, just like a spider web. What makes it worse is that there is only French but no English. We asked everyone we could find, and thanks to the God, we finally found the right metro line. I was so captivated by the architecture and the beautiful stained glass windows of the Cathedral. Walking along the bank of the Seine, we reached the Louvre Museum and spent the whole afternoon there. The Louvre is a magnificent palace. There are so many collections, antiquities from ancient civilization countries, sculptures, craftworks, paintings, prints and drawings, I bet the collections are more than that of any museum in China. The museum is so large that to me it is something like a labyrinth. We lost our way in it. We just walked around but failed to find the way out, feeling thirsty and tired. There are many visitors, we could hear various kinds of languages, including Chinese and even Shanghai dialects. The first day ended in a small hotel near the North station. Oh, there was an episode I nearly forget to tell you. We had our supper in a nearby restaurant. It was a French one. I could not read the French menu, so I asked the waiter to recommend one for me. Can you guess what I had for that night? Mussels, a big pot of mussels. Though I like mussel, I had never taken it as my main course before. It was really an unforgettable dinner. Lying on the bed of the Nord Hotel, I studied the map of Paris metro lines founding it was not so complicated as I had thought. I was full of confidence to manage it the next day.

Our first destination of the second day in Paris was the world-famous Eiffel Tower. It was chilly early in the morning, but the coldness could not prevent us from climbing the Tower. We came to the second floor and got a panorama of the charming city. At that moment, I had the illusion that I was in my dream, a beautiful dream that I have been longing for a fairly long time. One thing you cannot miss in Paris is walking along the Avenue Des Champs Elysees. We walked all the way to the Arc de Triumph, seeing many people were doing their Christmas shopping. Being familiar with the Paris metro lines, I found the second day was easier than the first day. We could enjoy the city sightseeing and feel the pulse of Paris, once a remote city from my mind, but now we are so close to each other. Everything is new, everything is different to me. I put myself into the crowd and shared the festive atmosphere of the upcoming holiday. The feeling cannot easily be forgotten I am sure.

The weather was not good when we visited Amsterdam. It was raining, which made it even colder. We walked along the road in front of the central station hoping to find the Dam Square. After about 15-minute walk, we reached a square, where I did not think is the Dam Square, for it was not as big as I once thought. We decided to go on, but there was no square ahead. So I asked a gentleman in the street, he told me the square we just passed was the Dam Square. Seeing that I was still suspicious, he smiled and said, of course the Dam Square is small, not so big as the Red Square in Moscow. Hearing that, we both laughed. We went back to the square and saw many pigeons. I played with the pigeons and took some nice pictures. Amsterdam has many canals and bridges, but the city is not big. It only took a few hours to look around the central part of the city. We did not see the symbols of the Netherlands – windmills and tulips due to the tight schedule and the wrong season. Amsterdam is an open city, just as the professor of the Ghent University had told us before we went there. He said there were three places worth visiting, one is the Dam Square, the second is the shopping center and the third is the Red Light area. We would like to see what the red light area looked like, but we had to go before the curtain of the night drew. I took a nice nap on the train back to Ghent. The train was very warm and comfortable. I felt like lying in the cradle with the rhythmic fluctuation of the train.

Brussels was the last destination before we left for China. We spent only half day in Brussels and just visited the Grand Place or the City Hall. It is a city that makes me feel like a home. I do not know how I can get such kind of feeling, but it really is. A friendly woman showed us the way from the station to the city hall and made a brief introduction of the city to us. On the Grand Place, we met some of our compatriots. One man was very interesting, he asked me if I was a Miss Japanese or Miss Chinese. I told him that I was a Miss Shanghai. He then asked us whether we were on a packaged tour. I said, no, we are on a budget traveling by ourselves. He was so surprised and said Miss Shanghai was marvelous. He was so amusing and wanted to take a picture with me. I can tell from his accent that he is from south China’s Guangdong province. There were many big and small shops around the Grand Place. Some of them were especially for the Christmas season I guess. I found a very lovely finger ring there, it is floriated, like a flower. I got a very good impression of Brussels. Think you can get the same feeling too.

Antwerp is the second largest city in Belgium. It is a harbor city like Shanghai. It was a pity that the day we visited Antwerp was not a good-weather day. It was drizzling, very cold, but the people there were very warm. One old lady answered my question in Italian, then said sorry for me and changed into English. She explained that she had spent 31 years in Italy though she was a Belgian.

Ghent is a very quiet city compared with Shanghai. I think it is the place one can go to when he wants to escape from the noisy and pressure that any big city brings to him. It is a nice place. I was quite familiar with its central railway station, for I went there twice every day. Good place, good people. I had a Spanish dinner in Ghent. The boss was from Chile and his wife came from Spain. Their son, a little boy with black hair and black eyes was so cute. He said hello to us as soon as we came into the restaurant. Though he is young, he can dance with the Spanish music quite well. The boss, father of the little boy was friendly. During our dinner, he came to ask us whether we liked the food or not. When I told him that I like the food very much, it was very special from what I used to eat, he smiled from ear to ear. At last, I suggested him to open such a Spanish restaurant in Shanghai saying that it could be very popular. And I promised to be the partner of the restaurant to manage it for him. He was so happy and said he could think it over.

This European trip was very short, we just went to a few places and got a very quick glance at the Europe, but what we saw and felt can last for a long time. I find people are the same, friendly, warm-hearted and are always willing to lend their hands to ones need help. I cannot forget the middle-aged woman and the old couple who had helped us in Paris metro lines. They could not express themselves in English well, but they were eager to help us -- two young Chinese ladies. I also cannot forget the woman in Brussels who showed us all the way from the station to where we wanted to go. There are many good-hearted people. The ladies in the supermarket near where I lived often answered more than I asked in case that I would not fully know the articles I bought. The kind gentleman in the railway station telling us where to get the tickets. And the young man translated the French in a mailbox into English for me.

Through this trip, I am glad to find that I can adapt myself to a new environment quickly. I can manage unexpected situations and settle problems well. I can live on my own of which I am full of confidence. This is really an unforgettable experience. I found many things I used to neglect once more. Maybe I can say I have rediscovered many highlights in life.

Europe is a good place to experience a romance. Do you think so? Up to now, I still remember the snow in Frankfurt Main airport, which made our flight delayed by 4 hours. But I did not feel sorry for that, because I love snow. I do not know when was the last time I saw so much snow, Shanghai has not got so heavy snow for a long time. My seat was near window, I could see the snow dropping from the sky, flying and dancing, very beautiful. Whenever I close my eyes, I can recall the flying snow in Main airport. One song came into my mind at this moment, love is one big illusion that I should try to forget, but there is something left in my head.

It was a nice and unforgettable trip. Though I may have many chances to go abroad in the future, this was my first one after all. Whatever you do, wherever you go, or whoever you will meet, the first one is always the last one you could forget.


Video of China Harbin Impression


Video of China impression from the foreigners' eyes


Improve life quality


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Deluxe Holiday Rental Properties - 10 Advantages

To cure any type of pains and pains, a dip in Sulfur Springs, described by the locals as, "the only drive-in volcano in the globe", supposedly has corrective energies. Prices will rely on the vacation homes' functions, size and proximity to a coastline. From May to August, the temperature level of water arrays from 18 levels Celsius to 26 degrees Celsius respectively.

It will totally transform your holiday vibe as you will certainly acquire an actually tranquil setting that will certainly assist you inbound from all type of tension and depression. When you check out exotic Thailand, you could select whether to own or villas in kalkan. There is a lot to do in the Azores on holiday and numerous family members now come here and stay in self catering holiday residences. Tito's additionally showcases popular DJs, circus home entertainment and professional dancers.

They can go with 1 bhk, 2 bhk, 3 bhk or duplex houses in Phuket. Various kinds of suites are available for couples and family members in Cyprus. This is contrasted by demonstrating how current fishing methods have actually created. The trend suggests that the Bangalore Home [] at CBD (Central Downtown) locations like Richmond town, Cunningham Road are near saturation and the scope for brand-new additions is thin.

These programs are featured in unique environments and landscapes in order to offer the golfers with an excellent playing golf vacation. On one event, we sat gathered under our coastline sunshade, utilizing it as a rain umbrella and refusing to clothe again in an useless act of defiance that left us both shivering. The acquisition of house condominiums might increase your buying power. There is a fantastic choice of villas kalkan and self event catering vacation flats to rent out as self catering holiday residences in the Canary Islands. All these rental properties offer a variety of services, air- conditioning, superior health, 1 Day room solution and basically anything you can possibly request vacationing.

Lots of travelers concern Ibiza on holiday and stay in self catering flats, they utilize these to check out the local society, night life and cuisine. Lately it has actually come to be one of the prominent spots in Europe to book a trendy, long-weekend vacation allowing in Spain. Likewise, the Hala Sultan Tekke cathedral that sits on by the side makes the place well worth a browse through.

In the previous couple of years, Greek home market has experienced a significant autumn with Residences available Classical shedding an investment as much as 75 % and villas for sale suffering loss approximately 40 %. Coral bay Location Villas: These supply closeness and distance to coastline. If you go for building insurance, it will cover the framework of your kalkan villas in France. Tarrafal town is an additional preferred traveler location in Cape Verde.

The location likewise has superb seasides on the Costa do Sol. As this component of Portugal is blessed with a sea loaded with fish and an abundant fertile landscape, there is an excellent range of local food. Seminyak is among the busiest traveler places in the island of Bali.


Hidden Safety Cameras

Getting a wireless alarm is another thing that homeowners can do to secure their premises.

Most phoenix security place a sign in front of your home or stickers on the doors and windows alerting potential thieves to the fact that the house is equipped with a home security system. Standard equipment in stores and many businesses are burglar systems or alarms which indicate some type of unwanted intrusion. Talking car alarms generally have multiple messages loaded in them, and can change their responses for the appropriate time. California's Security Guard industry is expected to grow exponentially in coming years.

There are many different types of camera available including hidden wireless cameras that can be placed out of sight, dome cameras that are discrete and can be used both indoors and outdoors as well as clearly displayed large CCTV cameras fitted with motion sensors and alarm systems so they can move and trip an alarm when security is breached. FM radio based car alarms are getting popular because of their simplicity. It helps the property owner realize that this manoeuvre prevent burglars from entering their property. There are many options available online to chose from which makes finding the right alarm kit a breeze.

On the other hand, an additional security feature to stop unauthorized entry is security tags provided to the employees. Many security companies are irresponsive in case of emergency, which defeats the purpose of hiring a security provider for the clients. The specific equipment that an individual home security alarm monitoring service uses is a big part of its offering, and the types of products available should be reviewed and discussed before agreeing to a monitoring plan. A fire alarm is the greatest asset a home could have.

Sometimes a car's alarm will go off if the automobile is unlocked without deactivating the door alarms first. Here are some ideas for putting together a cheap home alarm system. Closed circuits are normally a better choice than open circuits because an intruder can deactivate the open circuit by simply cutting the connected wires.


How To Remove Stress From Your Life.. by Michaela P. Thornley

April 20, 2013 - Stress is a concern for everyone, however it doesn't have to ruin your daily life. If you start to experience an excessive amount of stress, you will need to take action right away in order to avoid harm to your well-being. Here are a few effective stress coping techniques that may help you to regain charge of your life.

If you're on the move, drink orange juice or eat some acid to keep calm. Vit c also helps you body reduce the chances of common illnesses, like the common cold and viruses that induce coughs.

Taking a long, warm bath is a wonderful method for relieving tension and stress. Devote some scented oils or soaps and really luxuriate. Put on a little relaxing music or read a popular book. The warmth of the bath will soothe the body and the relaxation techniques gives your brain some much needed rest.

Properly expressing your anger is a big part of stress management. For example, getting very upset or angry can improve your blood pressure or Little City Dogs. Learn safe techniques to help you channel anger lower your stress.

It's important to have an understanding of what is causing your stress if you wish to stop it. Understanding in which the harmful stress in your own life emanates from is essential to controlling it. Stress could be the result of someone, object or event. Once you've discovered the more precise reasons for your stress, after that you can get to work to them.

Find out how you handle stress to determine how you can take action better. Try keeping a stress journal for a couple weeks. Examining your report, you are able to help figure if your responses are healthy in handling stress. If you don't think you handled things well, think of new and better ways to approach the identical situation.

Keep a good mindset constantly to reduce your stress levels. Negativity will simply worsen the situation. New problems will inevitably take the place of old. Managing stress means that you must affect the way you're living. To acquire rid of stress, you have to place increased exposure of the positive things in life while losing the negative.

Take yourself out of the situation you are in. Focus on repeating adages and affirmations to boost your confidence and reinforce your feeling of control.

Getting in contact with nature is very relaxing. Spending time in nature's beauty we can open up towards the glorious colors, designs, flora and fauna, and mysteries of life. Going on a nature retreat is surely a highly regarded means to lower the amount of stress in your lifetime.

If one makes yourself out to be the victim then you're only planning to increase the level of stress in your life. It is important to keep stress to a minimum and manage it. Consider what it would entail to reside a life that is completely free of stress. The reality is, there is no place or individual who has zero stress ever.

Rather than worrying endlessly, prepare for the worst start by making emergency plans. You can preserve a change of garments at your office, leave a couple of spare keys having a friend, or keep a pre-cooked emergency meal inside your freezer - anything to help you handle the unexpected. Knowing you've these things looked after will make a stressful situation not so stressful.

Attempt to pay attention to instructions. You can keep your stress levels down by concentrating on instructions if they are being given. Samples of this can be receiving directions from the supervisor, playing the advice of the doctor or hearing a teacher.

Planning things out is a superb way to feel less stressed. When your gas is running low, go have that gas immediately.

Using the tips above to heart will help you in maintaining mental balance by keeping stress from sinking its tentacles to you. Always seek new knowledge, and will not be strong-armed by stress. co-editor: Shenika O. Itzkowitz


How To Stay On Schedule With Home Improvement Projects

Are you hoping to increase the value of your home? Perhaps you just want to add more appeal to your environment. If you are planning to make some improvements, you should be aware of the obstacles that can pop up. That is simply the nature of home improvement. The skill of carpentry is one that takes time to acquire. Sometimes, being a handyman isn't enough for home improvements. Therefore, these tips are extremely useful.

Recycle old shoe boxes and turn them into storage. Use leftover fabrics and wallpaper, and dress the shoe boxes to match your decor. It's a very easy way to add extra storage as well as beauty to your room.

When you make improvements, think about the rest of the neighborhood too. Adding classic Victorian details to your home would look out of place in a neighborhood with Cape Cod homes. If you plan for changes that will blend well with the other homes in the area, it will make the home easier to sell in the future.

Stained wood is a great product to choose for replacing baseboards. The classic look of finished wood complements virtually any home decor style. Additionally, minor damages are not so glaringly obvious on stained boards as they are on painted boards. There are many colors of stain to match your decor.

Consider putting in radiant heat tiles. Radiant heat tiles use electricity to heat the tiles and keep your feet warm. You can easily install these things if you have detailed instructions. Its a good upgrade to your project regardless of whether or not you have a contractor. The first time you enter your bathroom on a cold winter's morning, you'll be glad of it!

It is important to invest in supplies and tools that are of high quality. Purchasing high quality tools can be costly, but it is a very worthwhile investment. In general, quality products are better suited to daily wear and tear. Quality tools are worth the cost up front, and they will save you money and time in the long run.

Things like the downspouts, gutters and chimneys are often forgotten around the home. These elements of the house must be examined often to ensure they are always in good working order. Your chimney can catch fire if not cleaned on a regular basis and gutters and downspouts can become clogged with debris, which can lead to water damage if not addressed.

A good quality door is a valuable home improvement to make. Your guests will be seeing your door whenever they enter and leave your home. If the door is not insulated properly or does not fit correctly, there will be a great loss of heat. A quality lock and a secure door frame can increase your security and help you feel safe in your home.

Purchase the best supplies for your home improvement project. This investment will pay dividends in the long run and is well worth the expenditure. In general, quality products are better suited to daily wear and tear. It's not desirable to replace expensive tools frequently.

Buying Thomas Kinkaid paintings isn't your only art option. Three-dimension tiles can look really nice, as well. Three dimensional tiles set in two different colors is wall art within itself.

There are not that many things that are important as your home. It's vital that you keep your investment in good shape so that your home will retain its value. By using the tips in this article you can make home improvement projects easy. Think about which ones feel right to you, and set aside a weekend, when you can start getting to work.

Here is more regarding renovation ideas (check these guys out) look into the web-page.


Internet Shopping Recommendations Which Everybody Need To Know

There exists nothing like a bit of shopping online to bring the great deal hunter in anyone. The important thing to really generating shopping online spend, even so, is to completely understand the most effective tactics and strategies involved. Continue reading to learn tips on how to optimize your bounty by using a couple of vital actions. Before buying coming from a new on-line retailer, perform some research upon them. Verify on-line critiques from other clients to see the way it manages stuff like customer service, shipping and delivery, along with its total buying encounter. You may also check the BBB to determine if they have any disputes and whether individuals quarrels had been solved expertly. Try contacting the corporation via email and contact number, if it's placed to inquire questions about its enterprise before you purchase something. Before heading purchasing at any online shop, do a speedy look for promotional regulations. Lots of the big merchants frequently ceas diesel have promotions operating which are not presented on their own webpage. Doing a quick look for these codes will assist you to place the program code at have a look at to economize. If a company includes a newsletter, sign-up. Typically, companies will give sneak peeks, special deals and discount codes to people on his or her email list. Nevertheless, be mindful. You don't want to sign up for every single company's newsletter or you'll in the near future be buried under limitless emails. Only join a company's newsletter should you like their products and services and would utilize a promotion code. Make an effort to make on-line acquisitions only with companies you happen to be previously familiar with. Odds are, a store you go to frequently probably includes a safe website. But, if you go to a site you understand practically nothing about, you will be putting your personal info, like your visa or mastercard facts, at an increased risk. Look for major on the web merchant income in the midst of a few days. With actual spots, you often see much more key revenue occur after the week like Fridays. In order to compete with those days, many internet vendors like pressing their sales up two or three days. Attempt retaining a watchful eye on main on the web retailer internet sites for product sales on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. In no way create your final acquire with out searching for promotion or coupons. It will take just a few mere seconds to get in the store's label as well as the words and phrases "promotional code" into the search engines. Most of the time, you must be able to discover discount coupons for the percentage from your get, free delivery, or perhaps a repaired sum off of a large acquire.


The Great Moment On Tuesday 9302014 Donn't Miss it

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Air date:9/30/2014

Summary: The next set of hopefuls audition in front of the judges hoping to gain a place in the next phase of the competition.

The show features four celebrity artists who will put together teams of singers who they'll coach and mentor throughout the competition. Week by week, individuals will be eliminated until each celebrity has only one person on their team left to compete for the title of "The Voice of America", in a live finale. Unlike American Idols' lengthy audition process, the celebrity mentors will select their team members via a blind audition, so they'll only be able to hear their voices. The show will have three stages of competition - the blind audition, a battle phase, and the live performance shows. Viewers will take part in the show by casting votes to help determine the finalists, who are competing for the grand prize - a recording contract.

The Voice Season 7 Episode 4 : s07e04 The Blind Auditions Part 4

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Episode Name:Auld Lang Party

Air date:9/30/2014

Summary: New Year's Day is approaching and Jenna wants to celebrate quietly, however things don't go to plan.

For 15-year old Jenna Hamilton, played by Ashley Rickards, life is forever changed after an accident turns into a horrible misunderstanding. Narrated in the first-person voice of Jenna's blog posts, "Awkward." captures the humor within the struggles and experiences everyone can relate to from their formative years. The series picks up in the aftermath of the accident as she must deal with a new not-so-fun stigma, while at the same time managing the other daily drama that comes with being a teenager. From a secret relationship with a popular guy, to being undermined by a mean girl, and parents who just don't get it - Jenna's misfortune will eventually serve as the catalyst for amazing change, but it's not without some missteps and mishaps along the way.

Awkward. Season 4 Episode 13 : s04e13 Auld Lang Party

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Episode Name:Julie Beckman's Older Sister

Air date:9/30/2014

Summary: Jess' father pays a visit with his new girlfriend, who ends up being Jess and Cece's former high school rival. Schmidt gets his friends to help him at work.


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Sweep your kitchen area ɑnԁ dining room flooring surfaces ɑnd remove your counters eɑch day. Еven ѕmall crumbs օr pieces оf fallen food can bring іn ants, roaches and othеr pest infestations. It іs ɑ great idea to unfilled tҺe rubbish on a daily basis. Garbage сaո be qսite a reproduction floor fߋr house and fresh fruit flies.

Мake ƴour individual affordable ant traps utilizing boric acid solution аnd sugary liquefied. Combine ѕeveral tablespoons of boric acidity powder іnto a cupful of bee honey, molasses, оr straightforward syrup. Ϝill tɦe mixture іnto container hats օr shallow plastic lids. Location tҺese traps in locations where you may hаve observed ants, but keеp these from the attain of kids and household pets.

Ηave rodents made аn look in thе hߋme? Seek out little holes that thesе particular ѕmall pest infestations can press via. Ρlaced scouring padding inside оf the pockets, oг then add poison. Repellents mіght also operate.

If yoս haѵe ants, seek out boric acidity. Boric acid, ѕometimes listed аs orthoboric acidity, іs easily the most efficient pesticide for ants. Additionally, manү of the baits made uρ of thiѕ are secure to uѕe arouոd animals aոd kids, еven thouǥh it іs best tօ cautiously go thгough all safety tags tߋ make sure.

Ԝhen үou see that you will find а abrupt infestation of insects in and aƅout ʏoսr home, check around fߋr garbage that may Һave bеen left oսt. Insects, bugs ɑnd wildlife will go to this, ɑs washing thіs ruin can do away wіth yοur issue effectively, saving уou time aոd expense.

Don't ɑlways κeep foods οut. Eɑch time yօu will bе making food, make ѕure you protect іt and alѕο betteг, ƿlace it fгom the fridge оr pеrhaps aո air flow-restricted compartment. Creatures ɑre muсh better at smelling tɦan folks aгe, and whеn tɦey scent one thіng yummy, they will ϲertainly аppear lookіng for it. Ӎake ѕure you don't abandon food items out tοо muϲh time.

Vacuum уоur carpets aոd rugs usuallү when yߋu are uѕing a flea dilemma. Ticks will start tօ reside iո your carpets and rugs if you hаve nоt sufficient room for thеse people οn your own pets. To help to keep tҺeir populace verу low ƴoս neеd tօ vacuum ƴour flooring а couple times pеr day and get rid օf the travelling bag instantly.

pest control vaMake sսre to repair all spills іn youг plumbing. Shߋuld yoս hаve virtually any queries аbout աherever aոd ɑlso tips on hօw tо employ pest control νa (, you ρossibly caո contact us ɑt the web-site. Pest infestations gravitate tօwards causеs of h2o. Interestingly, theƴ sensation a h2o leak, еven frօm a good range ɑsіde. Bе aware ɑbout maintaining pests оut. Make uѕe of ɑ very little elbow grease tо ѕtop the drip, or get in touch wіth an expert plumbing service ԝho can complete tҺe task foг yoս personally.

Constantly carefully browse tҺe product label ahead оf acquiring or աorking wіth іt. Not all pesticides ɑre right fօr yοu. Specific versions ϲan't be used iո cеrtain locations. In addition, diverse pesticide sprays treat ɗifferent insects. Aѕ a result, you must mɑke certaiո tҺat youг pesticide iѕ effective ɑոd safe. Usuɑlly do ոot tɦink twice get in touch with the manufacturer in tɦe product іn caѕe you haѵe ɑny queries.

If уoս feel ʏoս haѵe thеse bugs, you аre able to aid handle the population ƅy cleaning уour garments. Nevertheleѕs, үoս mսst bе mindful whеn ʏou aге performing sо. Set ɑll of yߋur clothing іn a plastic-type travelling bag. Seal іt to сonsider it to the washing laundry ƿlace. Rinse ɑll of it wіtɦiո the coolest normal water achievable tɦen dry it on ǥreat heating. Remember that іt must Ьe very hard to eliminate these bugs all on your own, so phone arߋund and finԁ out if a business աill wߋrk a free examination for you personally.

Уou sɦould ոow bе ready to set an idea iոtο measures with the ideas үou might ɦave discovered. Retain tҺe assistance іn yߋur mind as you may proceed for additional details оn what you can do. There is no purpose ոeveг to be practical іn terms of unwanted pests ɑt your residence wҺen there are so many possibilities.


The Best Advice For Planning A Home Improvement Project

You can really get to know your house intimately when you embark on DIY home improvement projects. It's important, though, to know what needs to be done, so you can do it correctly the first time. The advice in the following article will make it so your money and efforts are not wasted.

When building your own home through use of a contractor, add a clause to the contract that gives the builder a bonus for finishing on time and on budget. This clause will encourage your builder to do a good job in the time allotted, and can save you a lot of headaches due to missed deadlines and extended budgets.

Flooring can be a relatively simple home improvement project even for a novice. Focus on putting tile in your kitchen and bathrooms and replace your carpet with hardwood flooring. Home improvement stores have a wealth of information about how to make this process easy for you to complete.

Patch the holes in your walls with toothpaste! Yes, this is definitely a temporary cover up but it works to hide an ugly hole until you can come up with the materials for a more permanent fix. Use white toothpaste and trowel it into the hole with a butter knife.

If you're unsure of how to fix something in your home, hire a professional instead. Many people start in on home improvement projects thinking that they can do it easily, but that is not the case with many projects. It is easier and more cost effective to let a professional handle it instead of messing up and throwing your materials out.

Do you need to fix a hole in your wall made by a nail or screw. Create a divot in the wall with the rounded end of a screwdriver by pressing it into the screw hole. Next, use spackle or drywall compound to fill the divot. This will give you a nice smooth wall surface.

When deciding what exterior renovations a home needs to make it saleable, step out to the curb and take a picture. The picture on your listing is the first exposure any potential buyers will have to your home. If your picture shows a dingy house with overgrown landscaping, fix it!

Install ceiling fans to disperse heat and cooling better throughout your home. During the mild seasons, ceiling fans can provide all the cooling you need. Throughout the colder winter months, your ceiling fans can spread out the warm air from your heating system faster, cutting down on expensive heating costs.

For those who like to do it themselves instead of hiring someone, there are many ways to learn different techniques for home improvement. Looking on the internet, reading books or talking to more knowledgeable individuals, can help you to glean some useful information. There is much that can be learned for someone who wants to fix up a house.

If you loved this article and you would love to receive more information regarding typical Landlord insurance Rates generously visit our own website. Hang your pickle jars up by their necks! Well, really by their lids. Jars you would normally discard make great storage containers. To organize them tack the lids in a line under your shelves or cupboards. Fill the jars and screw them in place to make see through storage for small items like screws, pencils, pens, whatever!

If you are thinking of buying a new tub, sit in the tub before purchasing it. You may feel embarrassed, but sometimes bathtubs may look much bigger than they actually are. Some tubs are can not be returned or have a very high restocking fee, so make sure you are pleased with the tub before buying.

A homeowner should always hire a licensed contractor to do any home improvement work. All states require for general and sub-contractors to have a type of certification. The certification doesn't guarantee satisfaction, but they are an added assurance. Also, an uncertified contractor comes with the extra risk of possibly not having insurance.

A great home improvement method you can use is to actually check your faucets every year and do preventative maintenance on them. This way, you can avoid those annoying leaks and even those major breaks. It might seem like a hassle now, but you'll be preventing a lot of work in the future.

View things can match your is landlord insurance required by law home in importance to your daily life. It's vital that you keep your investment in good shape so that your home will retain its value. This article has given you some great home improvement suggestions. Put time aside this weekend to use the home improvement techniques you read that resonate with you.


The Record of Fire Safety Magnets

It's very important to take-all the mandatory measures in the event of emergencies such as for instance a fire. A simple nonetheless essential element of fire-safety is obtaining a minumum of one fire-safety magnet. A fire-safety magnet lets you write down all your safety contact data so that it is quickly in a single spot. To make the nearly all of a fire safety magnet, it's crucial to have it in a spot where you spend lots of occasion and may easily access it.

Where you can place your fire-safety magnet

Because it's magnetic, it's encouraged to keep in on your own refrigerator since many individuals, whether or not they are now living in a residence or a flat or anything related, have easy access to it. If your freezer isn't magnetic, any magnetic floor in your living space will work also, although it is critical that you will be in a position to achieve quick access to it if desired in an emergency.

Irrespective of maintaining one is likely to liveable space, it's advisable to own more than one so you might spot them in other areas you might frequent aside from your home. In the event that you function, maintaining one at your table or kitchen is a superb method to guarantee easy-access. For people who have youngsters, maintain one on the inside of the lunch box or backpack. In case of the child being within an emergency circumstance, they'll have most of the phone numbers they require once they are out-of harmis approach. You most likely WOn't ever need to utilize your fire safety magnet, nonetheless it is definitely safer to be over-organized than unprepared when experiencing this type of dire situation. More Fire Safety Magnets (visit the next document).


The Pluses of Asbestos Removal Sydney

If you live or work-in a place where asbestos could possibly be present, an asbestos register may prove beneficial. The register obviously recognizes asbestos in a building, in order to finances for it right away to really have the toxins eliminated. With respect to the amount of asbestos in your house or office, you may have to prepare for major construction to be sure the asbestos is completely eliminated. Before you receive an asbestos register, there are certainly a few factors you have to know.

Asbestos Needs

While there are some specifications to acquiring an asbestos register, there are instances when a register isn't required. For example, if you have naturally-occurring asbestos within your building as a result of quarrying or exploration, you're not required to obtain a register. Should you, because the work loop, believe that asbestos is present within your building, you are not necessary to acquire a register. You are furthermore not necessary to have asbestos register for those who have no purpose to think that asbestos exists.

Those Who Can Find Asbestos

Regardless of oneself, there are many people who can validate if an asbestos register is required for your facility. An asbestos assessor who is accredited can tell you if you want a register. You can also contact an asbestos removal supervisor to have a look at your home or office to see if you want to own any asbestos eliminated. An individual who is working for the National Organization of Testing Authorities may also authorize an asbestos register. If you believe that you, your household members or employees are not certified enough to to identify asbestos, you may contact one of the specialists listed above to have the assistance you require.

If asbestos can be found in your home or office, it is best to get the fixes you'll need right away to ensure the health of your family members and peers. See asbestos report.


Where To Purchase Cosplay Costumes

With all the fresh plays being manufactured everyday, some people that have costume inspired parties, or possibly it’s just that time of the year, Halloween, you can find any outfit you desire online with Cosplay costumes. Using a children’s play you will find a lot of kids that really needs a costumes and yes while in the old days the mothers used-to create the costumes, but now a days you can simply get online in order to find all the costumes you'll need and they be sent to you personally promptly. With a child’s play there's usually an occasion constraint and yes several of those costumes usually takes a while to make, why not consider the simplest way out probable and get them from Cosplay costumes. How about those inspired functions, some of the outfits you'd need might even be considered a small difficult to find depending on the topic. With cosplay outfits you can find any costumes you could be trying to find you or your child in a good deal. Not simply does cosplay have costumes, but almost any accessary you may need togo alongside whatever else you may require. Cosplay has costumes from movies costumes, scorching costumes, anime costumes, children’s costumes, therefore many more to make sure each customer gets precisely what their looking for at a great deal. With this particular ever-growing economy and every one of the money that is used each day for things that aren’t needed, whynot expend slightly of money at a place that will give you what you searching for. Cosplay even has these stunning ball dresses that each youngster needs and people pet outfits that there is no-one to discover with no one actually really wants to get months to create. When you yourself have a costume need and just don’t where-to get, Cosplay outfits has precisely what you’re trying to find. More Info: Cosplay Costumes (Resource).


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Military phone         Military SmartPhone

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Most popular products in the world

Top 10 products in the world until Oct of Year 2014


High tech design in Year 2015

变形手机transformable phone

When being called, the phone changes shape; When being flat, the phone hangs up.

Spider projection computer

Floating solar energy hotel

U-memory stick which can be copied to another without using compuer


Successful man always ensure the progress is within schedule.

Smart watchA man without a wrist watch is not a successful man. Successful men needs to check time every moment just to ensure that the progress is within schedule. 
LG G Smart Watch for select Android devices. Bluetooth 4.0 technology lets you easily sync with your compatible Android device to this LG G Watch, so you can receive and view important mobile notifications on the 2.2" touch-screen LCD.
If you like business watch, You can try Patek Philippe. With this magnificent volume, watch expert and authority John Goldberger, author of 100 Superlative Rolex Watches, presents the most beautiful and remarkable watches ever fitted with steel cases by the Geneva-Patek philippe Diamibased watch company Patek Philippe. With the collaboration of the world's leading collectors and connoisseurs, the collection presented in this exclusive publication is the result of painstaking research, supplemented by professional photographs that show the most minute details and characteristics of the movement, case and dial of each timekeeper. With 187 superb examples, as well as over 900 color illustrations and 800 descriptive texts, this volume offers the watch collector and enthusiastStainless steel case with a black croco-embossed leather bracelet. Fixed stainless steel bezel. White dial with silver-tone hands and index hour markers. Roman numerals mark the 2, 4, 8 and 10 o'clock positions. Minute markers. GMT scale around the outer rim. Date display appears at the 3 o'clock position. Chronograph - two sub-dials displaying: 12 hours and 30 minutes. Automatic movement. Scratch resistant sapphire crystal. Solid case back. Case diameter: 42 mm. Case thickness: 13 mm. deployment buckle. Water resistant at 30 meters/ 100 feet. Functions: hours, minutes, seconds, date, chronograph. Baume and Mercier Classima Executives White Dial Chronograph Mens Watch MOA8851. invaluable information about the finest rare masterpieces of Patek Philippe's production, including recent research on referencenumbers, dials, movements, related calibers and each watch's year of production. Organized in 12 chapters, this tome covers a century of the company's quintessential spirit and style.

Stainless steel case with a black croco-embossedleather bracelet. Fixed stainless steel bezel. White dial with silver-tone hands and index hour markers. Roman numerals mark the 2, 4, 8 and 10 o'clock positions. Minute markers. GMT scale around the outer rim. Date display appears at the 3 o'clock position. Chronograph - two sub-dials displaying: 12 hours and 30 minutes. Automatic movement. Scratch resistant sapphire crystal. Solid case back. Case diameter: 42 mm. Case thickness: 13 mm. deployment buckle. Water resistant at 30 meters/ 100 feet. Functions: hours, minutes, seconds, date, chronograph. Baume and Mercier Classima Executives White Dial Chronograph Mens Watch MOA8851.

And you can select more favorates to protect your success throuth clicking See More.


 It's no secret that I'm a total product junkie. I love trying new products and searching out the best pieces from each makeup line. People are always asking me what my favorite drugstore makeup products are, so I thought I'd put together a list of my favorite beauty steals!   
  L'Oréal Paris CC cream tinted eye rollerCetaphil cleanserL'Oreal Paris Voluminous Mascara, Carbon BlackNIVEA A Kiss of Care and Color balm1. L'Oréal Paris CC cream tinted eye roller— This is my absolute favorite drugstore product. You might remember me using it in my Hollywood makeup tricks post. I have several of these stashed in my purse and makeup kit. It's a lightweight under-eye illuminator that works on every skin tone. It makes me look rested even when I have a 5 am call time. 
  2. Revlon Skinlights — This product was so popular that people were buying it out of stores and selling it on eBay when it got discontinued. Revlon recently brought it back, and makeup artists everywhere are celebrating! Skinlights is a great multipurpose product for serious glow. You can use it alone, under your makeup, mix it with foundation, or tap it on top for seriously dewy, glowy skin. I like to mix some with my body lotion and put it on my legs when I'm wearing a skirt. 
  3. Cetaphil cleanser— This is a staple for makeup artists everywhere. It's a gentle cleanser that removes dirt and makeup without irritation. I have been using it since I was a teenager, and it keeps my face clean without being drying. I also keep it in my kit and dip Q-tips in it to fix mascara mistakes or lip liner smudges. 
  4. NIVEA A Kiss of Care and Color balm— This is a cheaper alternative to my much-loved Fresh tinted lip balm. I love the coral and cherry shades! Moisture and sheer color all in one. 
  5. L'Oreal Paris Voluminous Mascara, Carbon Black — THE HOLY GRAIL OF MASCARAS. This is the end all-be-all for me in terms of mascara. It's buildable, doesn't flake, and is a true black. Plus, it's less than 10 dollars. This is my favorite mascara of all time and believe me, I've tried them all (one time I spent 50 dollars on a designer mascara, and I still think this 10 dollar one is better!). 
  6. Maybelline BB cream— This BB cream has been getting a ton of love from the beauty blogs. Full disclosure: my favorite BB cream is still the Stila BB, but if you're on a budget this one is a close second! 
  7. Rimmel Stay Matte powder— Drugstore powders have a tendency to be packed with talc and can end up looking chalky, but this one has a really nice finish and (as the name suggests) stays matte for hours. I tend to be kind of oily in the T-zone, so I love this powder to keep me from getting shiny throughout the day. 
  8. Neutrogena makeup remover wipes— My favorite wipe. This one gets off even stubborn waterproof makeup. I keep these in my gym bag to get my makeup off before yoga and next to my bed for emergency face cleansing. 
  9. Revlon Colorburst Balm— Elsie and Emma love these too! They're very similar to the Tarte ones. There are tons of great colors, and they come in matte and glossy finishes! Elsie looks so awesome in the bold matter colors, and I love the glossy neutrals; there's something for everyone in her color range. 
  10. L'Oréal Paris Infallible eye shadow— These pressed pigments are another pro secret. The colors are gorgeous and they LAST. A fellow makeup artist used these shadows while shooting a movie in a swamp in New Orleans (oh, the humidity!) and was so impressed with their staying power that she bought every color!
  Those are my top 10 favorite drugstore beauty products. There are lots of hidden gems at your local drugstore, so don't be afraid to experiment! Some of my other favorite lower-priced lines are NYX and e.l.f. Target also carries a fantastic line called Sonia Kashuk. You don't need to spend a fortune to have fun playing with makeup! Thanks for letting me share! xo. AnnaRose

Top 10 Most Sexiest and Hottest Women in the World in 2014

 Olga Kurylenko10. Olga Kurylenko

Olga Kurylenko is a hot beauty diva of Ukraine. She is a famous model and television celebrity. Olga is also a well versed Victorian beauty of the world and is a quite graceful lady. Olga is now a brand ambassador of various beauty products and internationally recognized cosmetics.

9. Anna Fenninger:

Anna is a popular Austrian athlete. She owns a cute and amazing smile and a wonderful figure. Her hot beauty adds a plus to her level of professional success. The spell of Anna’ beauty spreads all over the world and the television channels, every now and then, conduct her interviews. Who knows when will this hot female get married but the fans’ expectations are very high so we can presume that Anna will focus more on her profession but not on personal relationships for a few more years.

8. Clair Bidez:

Clair Bidez she is one of the top 10 hottest women in the world and she is yet another famous athlete player. She is basically from United States of America, but due to her professional purposes she, every now and then, has to travel to different nations of the world. Clair is a young beauty of America and an extremely talented player of the era. Clair’ hot and sexy 

Olga Kurylenko

pictures in swimming suits, bikini and other nude photographs are the live prove of her amazing personality. But more than her beauty, Clair focuses on her performance as an athlete and tries to make world records and win gold medals in bulk.

7. Gracie Gold:

Gracie Gold is a wonderful sparkling women and a famous skater of the world. This American beauty has been in a relationship with Max Aaron. But it is not only Max who is occupied with the spell of her hotness but also are her male fans. Gracie is as beautiful and innocent as her name is. Some people say that she is sparkling like the gold. This young and graceful woman has been able to make some admirable world records in her field.

6. Sarah Hendrickson:

Sarah Hendrickson is only 19 years old, and has been blessed with a hot body, amazing personality and beautiful appeal. She is a successful ski jumper of America and it seems that she still has a long way of fame to go on. When you surf the internet and put on Sarah’s name into the search engine, I am sure you will have the chance to view a lot of hot and sexy pictures of this lady. Why not, she owns a stylish and amazing body so she deserves to let the world know how gorgeous and hot she actually is.

 Olga Kurylenko

5. Julianne Hough:

Julianne Hough is a wonderful and gorgeous dancer and a famous singer. She is known for her remarkable beauty and sexy personality which become the secrets behind her success as a dancer. Julianne, more than her look or hot appeal, is known as a successful dancer who has appeared both on small screen and large screen in America.

4. Natalie Portman:

Natalie, another sexy and stylish woman of the era, is a famous Hollywood actress as well. She has so far given us various successful movies and in every movie Natalie simply looks graceful and sexy enough to keep the men and youngsters crazy about her. Natalie is one of those rarest women of Hollywood who never stop themselves from doing experiment with their haircuts, styles and outlook. Natalie’ success graph is increasing with the passage of everyday and the directors and producers of Hollywood caste her in their movies with proud.

 Olga Kurylenko

3. Katy Perry:

Katy Perry is a hot pop-star and a talented and hard working lady. She is also called Hot California Girl, thanks to her God gifted skills and personality which have made us entitle her a hot beauty of USA. Katy is a well-presentable lady and I can say this with confidence that her name as a hot lady can be taken for many more years.

2. Eva Mendes:

Eva Mendes is now 40 years old, but what a hot and sexy appeal she still has. I must say every woman in the world should try to be as graceful as Eva is even when we get old. The secret behind her grace is the exercise and yoga which keep Eva’s body fit and slim. This golden haired woman is not only a sexy and hot female but also a super talented and highly skilled performer. Sometimes the people even cannot imagine if Eva has touched 40, because she still looks superbly hot and amazingly cool to make the fans crazy about her.

1. Hilary Knight – Most Hottest Women in the World:

Hilary Knight is not only the sexiest and hottest women in the world but she is also a well known and amazing ice-hockey player as well. She is not only a perfectionist of her profession but also is a hot and sexy diva of the year. Hilary rarely wears some hot outfits and swimming costumes before the camera, so you will find it difficult to search some hot pictures of Hilary on the Internet. But it is her physic and body which have made us enlist Hilary here as the top hot woman of the world in 2014.


Minnie Mouse Party Supplies Will Bring The Magic

There are many things polymer clay can imitate and amongst the them will be the iridescent look of dichroic glass. Hand calculators use mylar backed foils to make a similar or faux dichroic glass look with no work. The foils are produced by several brands but method needs pertaining to being done with mylar backed foils to achieve the right look.

They are more than Merino sheepskin soft and luxurious. No one can deny the tremendous effect of the cold and wicks . With such a pair of winter boots, completely certainly experience the coolness in the winter maximum.ugg australia kensington,The soft wool inside Classic Cardy Uggs UGG boots not only keeps an individual warm, but also meets there's no need shape of the feet, options . feet are firmly tightened. You can wear these shoes without socks to be able to enjoy the benefit offered by sheepskin dear.

Fine line markers are superb for tracing, writing and coloring in tiny details. This package has basic bright tints. I used to have my students use these markers on final drafts after writing in put in writing. They cost $4.99.

mylar food bags were produced remember the external factors of moisture, air and bacteria which is capable of doing spoiling food quickly and easily. You can use mylar bags to increase the lifetime of dry foods that are finished with refrigeration. For example; advertising keep dry fruits in a Mylar food bag they will last more than in various other plastic plastic box. Going through the various portals will provide a choice of food dust bags. As a result it can assist you to understand why a Mylar food bag is the most suitable choice for the food storage should.

I remember when I realized i was in grade school together to color all faces either brown or peach. Now, Crayola makes crayons and markers in multicultural colors. Many eight washable markers quite a few skin tones so kids can draw all associated with the friends and family in a more realistic way. These cost $4.99.

Do you or your kids always sit on, scratch, or lose your sunglasses? An effective rule of thumb with dollar stores is to trust metal merchandise. Unless it's jewelry, metal items won't break very with ease. The dollar store has sunglasses in stock that withstand well, and unlike designer shades, you is definately not too upset if they get lost!

Framed tiles are also excellent gift items. They are available with pictures along the front, or design private personal. Some places online sell Cherry Wood Frames safeguard $9. Their attractive design brings back memories individuals viewing the pictures in the frame. The tiles have two wall-mount holes additional protection. Men also as a night around. You could buy a couple of dinner gift certificates and take him to his favorite restaurant. Also you can a special night each of your.


Articles with wisdom

Wisdom articlesArticles with wisdom tell true meaning of life and work, share the philosophy of success and happiness. It’ hard, now, to find heroes who seem motivated, in some deep and cosmic way, by something more than themselves. It’s hard not to imagine that many of the cultural figures we’re meant to look to for inspiration-sports stars, movie stars, writers, business leaders-will one day end up as characters on reality TV.


A new system for a new century

    We talk of being a global community, but our institutions and behaviors tend to run counter to these currents. Our new reality-complex, interconnected, and faster than ever-means that the need for global cooperation and global solutions has never been greater. So what criteria should underpin a global system for the 21st century?
    First, such a system must foster cooperation. We're all in this together. Governments, business, and civil society cannot do it on their own. Global issues are interrelated, and multi-stakeholder responses such as public-private partnerships bring innovative solutions to the table. They engage the passion, purpose, and networks of civil society with the resources and experience of business.
    Next, a global system must also approach challenges in a systematic, integrated way. The issues on the global agenda are all interrelated, but our current system is too compartmentalized: the World Trade Organization for trade, the World Health Organization for health, and the International Monetary Fund for finance. We also have to establish the necessary interlinkages to create coherence. For example, how do we strike the optimal balance between the G-20 and the Untited Nations? We need flexible net-works-more heterarchies, fewer hierarchies.
    Third, the system should be strategic, not crisis-driven. Most of our energy is currently absorbed by reactive rather than proactive measures. Managing crisis instead of thinking about the future leads to defensive attitudes. We must adapt to a changing world, not defend outdated models.
    Fourth, a global system must continually demonstrate legitimacy. Today, this goes beyond mandates based on democratic principles; it includes clear objectives and concrete results. We undoubtedly have a delivery problem. And since promised actions are not fulfilled, we also have a trust deficit with governments, international organizations, and business.
    Finally, our global governance system must embrace the notion of global citizenship. In an interconnected world, it is in the interest of nation-states to strive for solutions to truly global challenges, such as climate change. Today, we not only need a Charter of Human Rights, but must also expand this notion to include responsibilities.   
    As a global community, we depend on the functioning of institutions and processes to manage our global neighborhood. Integrating these five criteria into our global system will be challenging, but if we don’t, we will continue applying topical treatments to conditions that fundamentally require global cardiac care.
    By Klaus Schwab who is the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum.


If an Algorithm Wrote This, How Would You Even Know?

Robot journalist

Let me hazard a guess that you think a real person has written what you’re reading. Maybe you’re right. Maybe not. Because, these days, a shocking amount of what we’re reading is created not by humans, but by computer algorithms. We probably should have suspected that the information assaulting us 24/7 couldn’t all have been created by people bent over their laptops.


It’s understandable. The multitude of digital avenues now available to us demand content with an appetite that human effort can no longer satisfy. This demand, paired with ever more sophisticated technology, is spawning an industry of “automated narrative generation.”


Companies in this business aim to relieve humans from the burden of the writing process by using algorithms and natural language generators to create written content. Feed their platforms some data - financial earnings statistics, let's say - and poof ! In seconds, out comes a narrative that tells whatever story needs to be told.


These robo-writers don’t just regurgitate data, either; they create human-sounding stories in whatever voice befits the intended audience. They’re that smart. And when you read the output, you’d never guess the writer doesn’t have a heartbeat.


Algorithms and natural languagegenerators have been around for a while, but they’re getting better and faster as the demand for them spurs investment and innovation. The sheer volume andcomplexity of the Big Data we generate, too much for mere mortals to tackle, calls for artificial rather than human intelligence to derive meaning from it all.


Set loose on the mother lode - especially stats - rich domains like finance, sports and merchadising - the new software platforms apply advanced metrics to identify patterns, trends and data anomalies. They then rapidly craft the explanatory narrative, stepping in as robot-journalists to replace humans.


The associated Press uses Automated Insights' Wordsmitn platform to create more than 3000 finaincial reports per quarter. It published a strory on Apple's latest record-busting earnings whithin minutes of their release. Forbes uses Narrative Science's Quill platform for similar efforts and refers to the firm as a partner.


But we should be forgiven a sense of unease. These software processes, which are, after all, a black box to us, might skew to some predicated norm, or contain biases that we can't possibly discern. Not to mention that we may be missing out on the insights a curious and fertile human mind could impart when considering the same information.


The mantra around all of this carries the usual liberation theme: Robo-journalism will free humans to do more reporting and less data processing.


That would be nice, but Kristian Hammond, Narrative Science's co-founder, estimates that 90% of news could be algorithmically generated by the mid-2020s, much of it without human intervention. If this projection is anywhere near accurate, we are on a slippery slope.


It's mainly robo-journalism now, but it doesn't stop there. As software stealthily replace us as communicators, algorithmic content is rapidly permeating the nooks and crannies of our culture.


Books are robo-written, too. Our phones can speak to us. Our home appliances can take commands. Our cars will be able to drive themselves. What does "human" even mean?


With technology, the next evolutionary step always seems logical. That's the danger. As it seduces us again and again, we relinquish a little part of ourselves. We rarely step back to reflect on whether, ultimately, we're giving up more than we getting.


Then again, who has time to think about that when there's so much information to absorb everyday? After all, we're only human.


My gloriously useless degrees in the humanities


When I left school in 2002 with a master’s degree in international affairs, I was set on having a career at the United Nations. By then I had already once changed career by dropping out of a clinical psychology program. Ten years later, I have the experience of both working for and leaving the UN.
In my undergraduate and graduate studies, I found pure joy in learning history and philosophy; studying the requirements, including statistics and economics, was less joyful. What I learned in both types of courses, though, was equally useless when I made my way as a working adult.
What was useful was the fact that I had a diploma in a relevant field, even though my mastery of the content mattered very little. It was useful that I was enthusiastic and willing to work long hours. On the other hand, I lacked the constitution to thrive in a hierarchical organization such as the UN. But school couldn’t have taught me that. The rest of what I needed, I learned on the job.
For generations, higher education has been associated with better career prospects. And certain degrees, parents believed, represented more marketable skills.
There is no paucity of researchers, policymakers, and business leaders who insist that producing more highly trained engineers and scientists is the key to reviving the economy. Many have embraced the House decision in May to cut funding for political science research at universities and reallocate it to physics, engineering, and chemistry through the National Science Foundation. The hard truth is no degree guarantees a clear-cut, secure professional trajectory anymore. 
In a similar trend, the National Endowment for the Humanities, one of the largest funders of humanities programs in the United States, has seen its annual budget shrink from $167.5 million in 2010 to $146 million this year. Academics are worried that budgetary shortfalls will push the humanities to backslide a century, when only a privileged few had access to them. 
Take a look at Europe’s most economically troubled countries. In Spain, for example, the job market hardly kept up with the rising education rates and half of its young people are unemployed. In America, half of the unemployed aged 25 and younger have some form of college education. Almost 40 percent of graduates who are employed are working in jobs that do not require a college degree.
“Security” today, as a former colleague of mine said, is skills, not a permanent contract. When I think about the work I did at the UN, knowledge of phenomenology or regression analysis was absolutely useless. But the ability to sum up hundreds of pages of technical and bureaucratic language in a crisp memo or a snappy presentation was – is – a great asset.
A foreign language works like a passport. Critical thinking helps put complex situations into perspective. Emotional acuity serves as a compass when navigating office politics. And these are skills that training in the humanities can enhance.
Commentators have already pointed out that unemployment among recent college graduates is not due to mismatch of skills, but rather to a lack of demand in the feeble economy. In the absence of growth to create jobs, young people with or without a college degree will continue to bear the brunt of the consequences.   
Higher education is more than a vocational or technical training. The essential purpose of it has never been primarily about “usefulness” in a narrow sense of acquiring a specific, practical tool to make oneself marketable. 
In the words of my late college professor – of philosophy – the purpose of higher education is to become broadly acquainted with cultural traditions and deeply appreciate them, so that it may help us become responsible citizens and good people in general. 
It is also about love – learning what one loves for the love of learning. Hence, it is “gloriously useless.” 
Sadly, it seems that rising student debt, coupled with the lack of economic opportunities thereafter, are diminishing access not only to certain disciplines but to higher education altogether. The recent cuts in the federal Pell Grant to save $11 billion over 10 years will make it even more difficult for low-income students to get a college education.
As for me, there was no way of knowing which major or degree was going to be “useful.” And since then, everything around me is constantly changing – and I with it. Priorities shift and my heart no longer desires what it once did.
I have long forgotten the details of what I absorbed in classrooms and libraries. I did, however, learn how to think for myself, and that is invaluable in the workplace and outside of it.

Proper Villain makes movie success


When watching Holly wood movies, I am often moved by their romanticism spirit and consciousness of earth ownership. They fight on the screen from year to year so that they can salvage New York, America or even the whole earth from the talon of the villains. For better completion of the mission, they invented a speciality which exists for saving city, salvaging human and protecting the earth...
This speciality is called super hero.
Obviously Hollywood likes this speciality very much using which to produce many new kinds stories every year. But I am confused in so many heros such as superman, black superman, superman family, batman, spiderman etc who have the same feeling of justice and the same mission. The difference is that someone likes to wear the underpants outside and someone likes to wear them on head.
To be honest, I was annoyed before by such hard to be memorized piece though I have found the rule recently: Who is the leading actor is not important, how to save the earth is also not important, the most important is that whether the villain does personalized bad thing or high level bad thing which in turn decides the level of movie.

Generally, there are three kinds of villains. One is ambitious machinator such as the villain in superman movie who has crazy smile and cloudy eye with the only target to enslave or destroy earth. This kind move is called gut popcorn movie.
The second is failing experiments mouse-they were originally scientists who lost his human nature by unsuccessful experiments with obtaining super power at the same time such as those in spiderman movie who bring us with splendid visual effect to create the visual series of popcorn movie.
The third one is the person who has bad luck. They opposed the super hero in the shadow of bad children memory or all kinds of love or hate such as those in Avenger alliance or spiderman3. They are pathetic and hateful or even lovely. And because of them, superman movie cannot be so popcorn like.
And whether is there the exception? Yes, clown in the dark knight is like this. They do not chase for money or power. They have no distorted bodies and even they do not hate the leading actor. Their fun are only to look for the bad side of the human mind and enjoy the evil side drives them to destroy.
The latest batman is so bourgeois. Batman is still there with lacking the frightening and lovely clown creates the bourgeoisness. The most fearful evil is not from violence, ambition, hate or uncontrolled high technology, but the darkness in the deep mind of human being.

Translated from Xia Haishu article who has the mentto 'Gain without pay and win in every gambling"

The Character Factory

  Nearly every parent on earth operates on the assumption that the character matters a lot to the life outcomes of their children. Nearly every government antipoverty program operates on the assumption that it doesn't.
  As Richard Reeves of the Brookings Institution pointed out recently in National Affairs, both orthodox progressive and conservative approaches treat individuals as if they were abstractions-as if they were part of species of "hollow man" whose destiny is shaped by economic structure alone, and not by character and behavior.
  It's easy to understand why policy makers would skirt the issue of character. Nobody wants to be seen blaming the victim-spreading the calumny that the poor are that way because they don't love their children enough, or don't have good values. Furthermore, most sensible People wonder if government can do anything to alter character anyway.
  The problem is that policies that ignore character and behavior have produced disappointing results. Social research over the last decade or so has reinforced the point that would have been self-evident in any other era-that if you can't help people become more resilient, conscientious or prudent, then all the cash transfers in the world will not produce permanent benefits.
  Summarizing the researth in this area, Reeves estimates that measures of drive and self-control influence academic achievement roughly as much as cognitive skills. Recent research has also shown that there are very different levels of self-control up and down in the income scale. Researchers often use dull tests to see who can focus attention and stay on task. Children raised in the top income quintile were two and a half times more likely to score well on these tests than students raised in the bottom quintile.
  People who have studied character development through the ages have generally found hectoring lectures don't help. The superficial "character eduction" programs implanted into some schools of late haven't done much either. Instead, sages over years have generally found that at least effective avenues to make it easier to climb. Government supported programs can contribute in all realms.
  First, habits. If you can change behavior you eventually change disposition. People who practice small acts of self-control find it easier to perform big acts in times of crisis. Quality preschools, K.I.P.P.(Knowledge is power program) schools and parenting coaches have produced lasting effects by encouraging young parents and students to observe basic etiquette and practice small but regular acts of self restraint.
  Second, opportunity. Maybe you can practice self-discipline through iron willpower. But most of us can only deny short-term pleasures because we see a realistic path between self denial now and something better down the road.Young women who see affordable college prospects ahead are much less likely become teen moms.
  Third, exemplars. Character is not developed individually. It is instilled by communities and transmitted by elders. The centrist Democratic group Third Way suggests government create a BoomerCorps. Every day 10,000 baby boomers turn 65, some of them could be recruited into an AmeriCorps-type program to help low-income families move up the mobility ladder.
  Fourth, standards. People can only practice restraint after they have a certain definition of the sort of  person they want to be. Research from Martin West of Harvard  and others suggests that students at certain charter schools raise their own expectations for themselves, and judge themselves by more demanding criteria.
  Character development is an idiosyncratic, mysterious process. But if families, communities and the government can envelop lives with attachments and institutions, then that might reduce the alienation and distrust that retards mobility and ruins dreams.


What died with Neil Armstrong


American mythology loves nothing more than the reluctant hero: the man whose natural talents have destined him for more than obliging obscurity. George Washington, we are told, was a leader who would have preferred to have been a farmer. Thomas Jefferson, a writer. Martin Luther king, Jr., a preacher. These men were roused form lives of perfunctory achievement, our legends have it, not because they chose their own exceptionalism, but because we, the people, chose it for them. We seeing greatness in them that they were too humble to observe themselves-conferred on them uncommon paths. Historical circumstance became its own call of duty, and the logic of democracy proved itself through the answer.
Neil Armstrong was a hero of this stripe: constitutionally humble, circumstantially noble. Nearly every obituary written for him has made a point of emphasizing his sense of privacy, his sense of humility, his sense of the ironic ordinary. And yet every aspect of Armstrong’s life made clear: On that day in 1969, he acted on our behalf, out of a sense of mission that was communal rather than personal. The reluctant hero is also the self-sacrificing hero.
And so Armstrong was an icon fit for America’s particular predilections: one who made history, yet one who recognized the ultimate contingency of his own history making. One who, Washington-like, preferred quiet retirement over continued fame. “Nothing is more typical of Armstrong, or more estimable,” Anthony Lane put it, “than his decision not to go into politics; heaven knows what the blandishment, or the invitations, must have been. That is not to deprecate the service rendered by, say, John Glen, but simply to remind ourselves that political ambition, like our other passions, is in the end a low sublunary affair; and that Armstrong, by dint of being the first man to tread not upon terra firma but upon the gray dust of terra incognita, rose above the fray and stayed there.”
It’ hard, now, to find heroes who seem motivated, in some deep and cosmic way, by something more than themselves. It’s hard not to imagine that many of the cultural figures we’re meant to look to for inspiration-sports stars, movie stars, writers, business leaders-will one day end up as characters on reality TV.
And so Armstrong’s loss is not merely a loss for all the obvious reasons, but also because it signals a small shift in American mythology. If Armstrong’s was the age of the reluctant hero, ours is the age of adamant heroism. Our familiar figures are people who, whether or not their talents entitle them to it, explicitly sought their own fame.
That is largely to the good. It means a democratic culture, a culture where systematized notions of merit-based on race, based on class-dissolve into the broader culture will. But it also means a shift in how we see success and ourselves as seekers of it. The tension Armstrong embodied so succinctly-publicity on the one hand, humility on the other-is dissipating. The humility factor is dissolving into a culture that often equates fame with power. Our current icons are less the people who have been called to duty, and more the people who have battled their way into it-the subjects, rather than the predicates, of their own greatness. The reluctant hero is diminishing. Armstrong’s passing signals an end to that myth.
Megan Garber

When capitalists cared


In the rancorous debate over how to get the sluggish economy moving, we have forgotten the wisdom of Henry Ford. In 1914, not long after the Ford Motor Company came out with the Model T, Ford made the startling announcement that he would pay his workers unheard-of wage of $5 a day.
Not only was it a matter of social justice, Ford wrote, but paying high wages was also smart business. When wages are low, uncertainty dogs the marketplace and growth is weak. But when pay is high and steady, Ford asserted, business is more secure because workers earn enough to become good customers. They can afford to buy Model Ts.
This is not to suggest that Ford single-handedly created the American middle class. But he was one of the first business leaders to articulate what economists call “the virtuous circle of growth”: well paid workers generating consumer demand and that in turn promotes business expansion and hiring. Other executives brought his logic, and just as important, strong unions fought for rising pay and good benefits in contracts.
Riding the dynamics of the virtuous circle, America enjoyed its best period of sustained growth in the decades after World War II, from 1945 to 1973, even though income tax rates were far higher than today. It created not only unprecedented middle-class prosperity but also far greater economic equality than today.
The chief executives of the long postwar boom believed that business success and workers’ well being ran in tandem. Frank W. Abrams, chairman of Standard Oil of New Jersey, voiced the corporate mantra of “stakeholder capitalism”: the need to balance the interests of all the stakeholders in the corporate family.
Today the prevailing cut-to-the-bone business ethos means that a company like Caterpillar demands a wage freeze and lower health benefits from its workers, while posting record profits.
Globalization, including the rise of Asia, and technological innovation can’t explain all or even most of today’s gaping inequality; if they did, we would see in other advanced economies the same hyper concentration of wealth and the same stagnation of middle-class wages as in the United States. But we don’t.
In Germany, still a manufacturing and export powerhouse, average hourly pay has risen five times faster since 1985 than in the United States. The secret of Germany’s success, says Klaus Kleinfeld, who ran the German electrical giant Siemens before taking over the American aluminum company Alcoa in 2008, is “the social contract: the willingness of business, labor and political leaders to put aside some of their differences and make agreements in the national interests.”
In short, German leaders have practices stakeholder capitalism, while American business and political leaders have dismantled the dynamics of the “virtuous circle” in pursuit of downsizing, off shoring and short-term profit and big dividends of their investors.
Today, we are all paying the price for the shift. As Ford recognized, if average Americans do not have secure jobs with steady and rising pay, the economy will be sluggish. Since the early 1990s, we have been mired three times in “jobless recoveries.” It’s time for America’s business elites to step beyond political rhetoric about protecting wealthy “job creators” and grasp Ford’s insight: Give the middle class a better share of the nation’s economic gains, and the economy will grow faster. Our history shows that.
Hedrick Smith

You're not special


Commencement is life's great ceremonial beginning, with its own attendant and highly appropriate symbolism. Here we are on a literal level palying field. That matters. That says something. And your ceremonial costume is shapeless, uniform, one-size-fits-all. Whaterver male or female, tall or short, sholar or slacker, each of you is dressed, you'll notice, exactly the same. And your diploma, but for your name, are exactly the same.
All of this is as it should be, because one of you is special.
You are not special. You are not exceptional.
The empirical evidence is everywhere. Across the country no fewer than 3.2 million seniors are gradudating about now from more than 37,000 high schools. Even if you are one in a million, on a planet of 6.8 billion that means there are nearly 7,000 people just like you. You see, if everyone is special, then no one is. We have of late, we Americans, to our detriment, come to love accolades more than genuine achievement.
It is an epidemic-and in its way, not even dear old Wellesley High is of the best of the 37,000 nationwide, Wellesley High School...where good is no longer good enough, where a B is the new C, and the midlevel curriculum is called advanced College Placement. And I hope you caught me when I said "one of the best". I said "one of the best" so we can feel better about ourselves, so we can bask in a little easy distiction, howerver vague and unverifiable. But the phrase defies logic. By definition, there can be only one best. You are it you you are not.
if you have learnt anything in your years here I hope it is that education should be for, rather than material advantage, the exhilaration of learning. You've learned, too, I hope, that Wisdom is the chief element of happiness. I also hope you have learnt enough to recognize how little you know now, at the moment, for taoday is just the beginning. It is where you go from here that matters.
As you commence, then, and before you scatter to the winds, i urge you to do whatever you do for no reason other than you love it and believe in its importance. Resist the easy comforts of complacency, the specious glitter of materialism, the narcotic paralysis of self-satisfaction.
And all the as a matter of principle, as a matter of self-respect. Read as a nourishing staple of life. Develop and protect a moral sensibility and demonstrate the character to apply it. Dream big. Work hard. Think for yourself. Love everything you love, everyone you love, with all your might. And do so, please, with a sense of urgency, for every tick of the clock subtracts from fewer and fewer.
Like accolades ought to be, the fulfilled life is a consequence, a gratifying byproduct. It is what happens when you are thinking about more important things. Climb the moutain not to plant your flag, but to embrace the challenge, enjoy the air and behold the view. Climb it so you can see the world, not so the world can see you.
Exercise free will and creative, independent thought not for the satisfactions they bring you, but for the good they will do others. And then you too will discover the great and curious truth of the human experience is that selflessness is the best thing you can do for yourself. The sweetest joys of life, then, come only with the recognition that you are not special.
Because everyone is.

10 Facts That Explain How Ludicrously Rich Bill Gates Is

Bill Gates is far, far richer than you. And in case you needed a reminder, here are 10 facts that better demonstrate just how insanely rich he is.



Bill Gates earns $250 every second. That's about $20 million a day and $7.8 billion a year.



If Bill Gates dropped a thousand dollars, it wouldn't be worth his time to pick it up because he will have made it back within 4 seconds.



The US national debt is about $5.62 trillion dollars. If Bill Gates were to pay the debt by himself it would be paid off in 10 years.



If Bill Gates gave everyone on Earth $10, he'd still have $2.26 billion left.



If Bill Gates was a country, he would be the 37th richest country on earth. There are 196 countries.



If you changed all of Bill Gate's money to $1 notes, you can make a road from earth to moon, 14 times back and forth. But you have to make that road non-stop for 1,400 years and use a total of 713 Boeing 747 planes to transport all the money.



At a spending rate of $1 million a day, it would take Bill Gates 218 years to spend all his money.



Bill Gates pays $1 million per year in property taxes for his house.



If Michael Jordan didn't drink and eat, and kept up his annual income, he'd have to wait for 277 years to become as rich as Bill Gates is now.



Bill Gates has donated more than $26 billion of his money. Currently 1,645 of the 7.125 billion people in the world have made $1 billion dollars.



Audrey Hepburn, An Elegant Spirit

Although she was never an ardent follower of any formal religion,my mother's own faith endured throughout
her life:her faith in love,her faith in the miracle of nature,and her faith in the goodness of life.She honored this second chance at life at every opportunity that presented itself and most of all at the end of her life,through her work for UNICEF.

Sometimes a near-death experience can free us of the shackles that life slowly trainsus to wear.We come to realize what's worth the sweet and what isn't.Although she had no memory of her childrenhood near-death experience,the knowledge of it,coupled with the fertile ground of an already self-effacing nature,were the roots of the humility that graced her entire life.

I never heard her say,"I did this,"or"I've done that."Toward the end of her life,throughout the UNICEF years,I would hear her say regularly,as the world listened to her,"I can do very little."I never heard her say that she liked any of her performances.When people complimented her,she would always shy away and ultimately explain how those who surrounded her were the reason for her success.

Bessie Anderson Stanley wrote,"To laugh often and much,to win the respect of intelligent people and affection of children,to earn the appreciation of honest critics and endure the betrayal of false friends,to appreciate beauty,to find the best in others,to leave the world a bit better whether by a healthy child,a garden patch or a redeemed social condition,to know even one life has breathed easier because you have lived,this is have succeeded ."By Ms. Stanley's standards,my mother's life was a success:She was graced with good choices.The first choice she made was her career.Then she chose her family.And when we,her children,were grown and had started our lives,she chose the less fortunate children of the world.She chose to give back.In that important choice lay the key to healing and understanding something that had affected her thtoughout her entire life:the sadness that had always been there.

Her choices healed the sadness of a little girl who didn't know her father for most of her life and yet who yearned and longed for that warm embrace,that reassurance that you are loved and that you matter.When I look back,that we mattered.This was the most valuable essence,the roots that live and grow forever inside you.She truly was a wonderful mother and friend. 




Enlightenment of My Childhood

In my childhood, there was no enlightening education, especially for painting. Sixty years ago, in the depths of the country of my hometown, it was hard to see a picture, let alone a drawing teacher.
  In my memory, the earliest pictures I saw were in my mother’s room: one was a New Year picture in which a beautiful woman was holding her plump baby in the arm; another was a pair of mirror-screened pictures with some flowers like wintersweet or peony. Both of them were my mother’s dowries.
  In addition, what gave me the deepest impression was the pile of books in the attic of my old house. Most of the books were the magazine that I knew later was Dongfang Zazhi, the East Journal. In the eyes of a little boy like me at that time, very, very big were they in which there were many pictures: film stars, genre paintings, cartoons, and the like. They were so attractive that I looked on over and over, again and again.
  As for the Chinese traditional paintings I saw in my early times, they have remained fresh in my memory till now. It was in the houses of other people that I accidentally saw such paintings that maybe were authentic works in my earliest memory.
  The first time was when I, at fourteen years old, went to sell orange. In a small street, there was a rich and big family. Its front door whose dark coat of lacquer was almost fallen was opened. I looked in through the door, finding two paintings of landscape, flowers and birds on the wall of the central room. They were so attractive that I, forgotten buying orange, set my back basket on the ground, went silently into the room and knelt on the big armchair to look them carefully. I was engrossed in the paintings when suddenly came footsteps, so I tried to hurry my way out. “My dear child,” a kind old woman, neatly dressed, said to me, “don’t hurry to leave. Look at them carefully if you want.”
  In another time, my mother took me to visit one of my grandpas. In his central and winged rooms, there were many paintings on the wall. In one of them, two ancients were playing musical instruments, sitting oppositely, with trees, mountains and waters. The other paintings concerned about landscapes, flowers or birds were all attractive. I still knelt on the armchair to look at them carefully one by one, thinking: “Why are they completely different from my pictures? How ugly I usually draw on the ground, on the wall or on the paper!” I admired them while ashamed of my own. At that time I wanted very much to know how the painters had painted them, but I dared not want one day I could paint like that.
  Since then, I was thirst for a sample, and even for a teacher.
  But this for me was only an extravagant hope. In the depths of the country in the central part of Sichuan province, the children like me were wild grass emerging and perishing of ourselves, and grew ignorantly in our small world. The old house of Dus—my family name, where my family people had lived for generations—was my kindergarten as well as my Eden where I scribbled everywhere.
  My biggest shortcoming in childhood was to make doodles. I always drew anything I had looked and thought on flagstone, on sand, on door, cupboard, waste paper, whitewashed earth wall, and the like. And I often felt self-satisfied over such doodles although it was in disorder everywhere. Sometimes I could be praised by my pals or even by grownups but frequently I was berated for I had scribbled in the places where I should not, or I was hit on the head by some grownup with his tobacco pipe when I was engrossed in my doodle. In this way I drew my pictures, forgetting everything. How I expected someone could instruct me!
  But I had not come across anyone until I went to the county middle school. There, Mr. Huang Chun(黄纯), who had graduated from an art school, taught me Picture Drawing. Strict and stern, he always kept a straight face in the class.
  At the very beginning, Mr. Huang talked a lot about visual art, plastic art, spatial perspective, and the like, which made us confused and uninterested. Possibly he felt this was to cast pearls before swine, so that he one day started to do instead of to talk in the class.
  It was indeed a real painting class I saw in the first time, still alive in my memory up to the present.
  We had already prepared two exercise books, one grass-papered book for pencil drawing, and one water-papered book for ink painting, each fifty or sixty centimeter long, which was different from other middle schools.
  In that class, Mr. Huang, having told us to put the water-papered book on the desk, used some rice to put a piece of the same paper on the blackboard, saying, “You prepare a small dish, a cup of water, and two brushes.” With our preparation, he shouted, “Make ink!” Then there in the classroom was no any sound except the one of ink making. This perhaps was caused by his serious face and his brief words.
  “Finished?” he asked. “Finished!” we answered.
  “Good. Put down your ink stick!”
  So we did.
  “Take up the small brush. And give it two rinses!”
  So we did.
  “Dip in thick ink!”
  So we did.
  “Scrape at the edge of the cup!”
  So we did.
  “Look! Dip in thick ink! Have two twists!”
  So we did.
  “Pay your attention! Look!”
  We watched him painting. Within a minute, on his paper appeared some branches that looked artistically spaced and just right of the shades. I at once watched in a daze while admiring his inspired strokes.
  “Now,” he commanded, “imitate!” So we did with reverence and awe according to the sample on the blackboard.
  “Use the big brush!” he cried out. With his eyebrow frowned and his face straight, he was like a foreign drillmaster in the burning sun delivering command to train his recruits, a serious appearance and a sonorous voice.
  “Dip in the water! Use thin ink! Have one twist! Take a little thick ink, on the brush point!”
  Oh! A stroke like this has its own thick and thin, smooth, and natural, so that the leaves painted with such strokes look fresh and alive. At that time in the class, admiring Mr. Huang very much, and being satisfied with my own copy, I was extremely excited with every cell of my body skipping and jumping about, just as an opium-eater who had enjoyed smoke to the full.
  Whenever I remember the class, I think of Mr. Huang, full of my reverence. As the result, in the only two times when I returned to my native town, I paid my special visit to him.
  The first time was in 1959 when Mr. Huang was nearly sixty years old.
  It was in a teahouse that I met him. At a distance, I saw a grey-bearded man sitting in a bamboo chair, a big drawing book on his hand. Once I recognized him, I went quickly in front of him, saying, “Hello, Mr. Huang!” He looked uneasy, hurrying to put the book to his bosom. I pretended not to have noticed his action, only to speak out my name very slowly and to tell him that his student came to look in him. “Oh,” he said, “I know.” And then, he let me sit down, and asked another cup of tea.
  At the time, he recovered his natural manner, again a serious and calm one. I found that he was almost the same with the teacher in my memory, except his grey hair and his unsmooth face.
  I politely offered him a cigarette and lit for him, saying that I was sorry not to visit him for a long time, that it was fortunate for me to get his teaching, and that I would never forget his favour. He immediately responded with politeness that he did not deserve my words, and that he was satisfied if not to have misled the students.
  And then, I told him my early story in search of a drawing teacher. Once upon a time, my father brought me, a little boy, to a teahouse where he met a drawing teacher, Mr. Wang. My father told him that I liked drawing pictures and asked him to teach me. But unexpectedly, Mr. Wang did not take any care at my father’s words, only to chat with others, and I felt very, very embarrassed. After the story, I then told Mr. Huang that it was in the middle school that had my first drawing teacher so that I felt extremely happy and especially grateful.
  Mr. Huang got delight with my good memory, and invited me to go around the middle school.
  On the way to the school, we had a free talk. I said that in those years I feared him very much for he was hot-tempered. I could still remember that once an old student, about two dozens of years old, made a joke to Mr. Huang, and Mr. Huang asked a school worker to carry a bundle of bamboo into the classroom, pressing the old student on bench to beat his ass. With half a dozen of the broken bamboo pieces aside, I was so afraid of his terrible cry that my hair stood on end. After hearing this, Mr. Huang forced a smile, saying that he was in the time too young to forgive his students, which was not good.
  When talking, we arrived at my Alma Mater. A belt of wall was built at the foot of the hill. On each side of the front door stood a big oak, and this kind of tree could be seen here and there in the school. The school had come from a temple. It was named the Wen-Zheng Middle School, after Sun Wen (Sun Yat-sen) and Jiang Zhongzheng (Chiang Kai-shek), originally a private school. In the front of the classroom that had been changed from the Tianzidian Hall (the Hall of Son of Heaven), we were likely brought back to the past, talking a lot about the interesting events of my schooling days. And at last, we waved good-bye to each other, reluctant to leave the old school.
  The latest time I visited Mr. Huang was in 1995 when he was an octogenarian.
  In an afternoon of the late autumn, the grey-white sunlight was slanting on the rough road of flagstone. Along the both sides of the small street stood the old grey houses, two rows of stooping old men. If there was not a popular song in the air, you must feel that you were in an old street before a century.
  Once again, I saw that familiar doorframe, declined on one side. At one glance, I recognized the old man was my teacher, Mr. Huang Chun, leaning against the doorframe, a walking stick in his hands.
  I hurriedly went up, said eagerly “Hello, Mr. Huang!” and made a deep bow to him. Having opened his cloudy eyes, he looked me carefully for a little while, and said, “It’s you, Yongqiao! Come, into my room!”
  His eyes and his voice evoked immediately my past memory: a tall young teacher, with his face bright, serious, stern, loud-but-clear-voiced in class as if a commander delivering his command, making my ear ache; I wanted his instruction but feared him to be close to my ear.
  Here, I helped him, much shorter now, into the room where his daily wares were clear at a glance: one bed one table and two stools, spotted, old and broken like some unearthed relics. I put a bag of gift on the small round table with its coat of lacquer fallen. Having waited him sit down on one stool, I sat down on the other that protested under my weight.
  An honest and simple man, Mr. Huang had kept his duty all him lifetime. During the Great Cultural Revolution (1966—1977), he suffered persecution so much that he made an attempted suicide by jumping from a building to the ground, with his leg broken as his deformity forever. Worse than that, his wife was dead years ago. And at the present time, his living was supported only by his daughter’s slender income.
  Looking on his silver hair and his wrinkled face, I seemed to see a lonely old man, stooping more and more, appearing and disappearing in the schoolyard. Suddenly, a fit of sad feeling surged up in my mind.
  Mr. Huang was deeply moved with my visit, saying, “You’re well-known, which is recorded in the county annals, but you’d like come to see me. Apart from you, none of my students have come and visited me though I have many of them. Thank you for your sending me Xuan paper, ink, brushes and pigments.” As he spoke, his cloudy eyes glistened with tears.
  I said, “You’re my first teacher guiding me correctly to draw and to paint. Perhaps, I have a little achievement, but that should be contributed to the favor of your teaching. An old saying goes like that the favor of a water drop should be repaid with a spring of water. I’m not able to do like that, but I’m at least able to come and see you, repaying a little of your kindness.”
  Smile on his face, Mr. Huang handed me a pile of his paintings, and asked me to speak of my opinions. Moved and apprehensive, I said, “You still make efforts to paint in your so high years that I really admire you. Don’t think too much. Just paint as you please.” He nodded with smile.
  After a while, he invited me out to eat. I asked a bowl of rice noodle to save his money. And then, he took me into the teahouse, introducing me to the people, and saying that it was his biggest satisfaction to have me as his student.
  In the Beimen Street, I took with him a photo that I have selected to put in one of my painting collections published in recent years. Mr. Huang is my be-loved teacher forever.


I'm Done Making My Kid's Childhood Magical

If our grandmothers and great-grandmothers could see the pressure modern mothers put on themselves, they'd think we were insane.
Since when does being a good mom mean you spend your days creating elaborate crafts for your children, making sure their rooms are decked-out Pottery Barn Ikea masterpieces worthy of children's magazines, and dressing them to the nines in trendy coordinated outfits?
I don't believe for a moment that mothers today love their kids any more than our great-grandmothers loved theirs. We just feel compelled to prove it through ridiculously expensive themed birthday parties that have do-it-yourself cupcake stations with 18 types of toppings and over-the-top gifts.
For a few years, I got caught up in the "Anything You Can Do I Can Do Better" parenting model, which mandates you scour Pinterest for the best ideas, execute them flawlessly, and then share the photo evidence with strangers and friends via blogs and Facebook posts.
Suddenly, it came to me: We do not need to make our children's childhood magical. Childhood is inherently magical, even when it isn't perfect. My childhood wasn't perfect and we weren't rich by any stretch of the imagination, but my birthdays were still happy because my friends came over. It wasn't about the party bags, perfect decorations, or any of that. We popped balloons, ran around in the backyard, and we had cake. Simple. But when I look back on those times, they were magical.
Christmas. With four of us kids and a limited income, my parents bought maybe two gifts per kid. There was no Elf on the Shelf all month long monitoring our activities and getting into photo-worthy trouble. No special Christmas jammies. Very few decorations, if any. We didn't even make cookies. What made that time of year simply ethereal for me as a child was huddling in one bed with my brothers thinking we could hear Santa's reindeer on the roof. It was so much fun to try to stay awake, giggle together, and just anticipate the next morning. It was magical. I did not feel as if I lacked for anything.
I don't have a single memory of doing a craft with my parents. Crafts were something I did in preschool and primary school. The only "crafts" I recall were the ones my mother created in her spare time. The hum of her sewing machine would often lull me to sleep as she turned scrap cloth into hair accessories to sell and hemmed our clothes.
At home we played. All the time. After school, we'd walk home from the bus stop, drop off our backpacks and my mom would push us out of the house. We ran around with the neighborhood kids until dinner. Times are different now and very few of us feel comfortable letting our kids wander, but even when we were inside, we played with our toys and video games. We made blanket forts. We watched TV. We slid down the stairs on pillows. Our parents were not responsible for entertaining us. If we dared to mutter those two words, "I'm bored," we would be handed a chore.
I look back on those times and smile. I can still recall what it felt like to have carefree fun.
My parents made sure we were warm and fed, and planned the occasional special activity for us (Friday night pizza was a tradition in my home), but when it came to the day-to-day, we were on our own to be kids. They rarely played with us. Apart from the random empty refrigerator box scrounged from the back of an electronics store, we weren't given toys outside of our birthdays and major holidays. Our parents were around in case we needed something or there was accident, but they were not our main source of entertainment.
Today, parents are being fed the idea that it benefits children to constantly be hand in hand, face to face, "What do you need my precious darling? How can I make your childhood amazing?" You can't walk through Pinterest without tripping over 100 Indoor Summer Craft Ideas, 200 Inside Activities for Winter, 600 Things To Do With Your Kids In The Summer. 14 Million Pose Ideas For Elf on The Shelf. 12 Billion Tooth Fairy Strategies. 400 Trillion Birthday Themes. 

Parents do not make childhood magical. Abuse and gross neglect can mar it, of course, but for the average child, the magic is something inherent to the age. Seeing the world through innocent eyes is magical. Experiencing winter and playing in the snow as a 5-year-old is magical. Getting lost in your toys on the floor of your family room is magical. Collecting rocks and keeping them in your pockets is magical. Walking with a branch is magical.
It is not our responsibility to manufacture contrived memories on a daily basis.
None of this negates the importance of time spent as a family, but there is a huge difference between focusing on being together and focusing on the construction of an "activity." One feels forced and is based on a pre-determined goal, while the other is more natural and relaxed. The immense pressure that parents put on themselves to create ethereal experiences is tangible.
I've been told we went to Disneyland when I was 5. I have no memory of this, but I've seen the faded photographs. What I do remember from that age is the pirate Halloween costume I wore proudly, picking plums from the tree in front of my house, intentionally flooding the backyard garden to teach myself to skip rocks, and playing with my dog on my front stoop.
I have not one memory of the vacation that my parents probably saved for months for: the vacation that was most likely quite stressful. The "most magical place on Earth" in my childhood was not a theme park; it was my home, my bedroom, my backyard, my friends, my family, my books and my mind.
When we make life a grand production, our children become audience members and their appetite for entertainment grows. Are we creating a generation of people who cannot find the beauty in the mundane?
Do we want to teach our children that the magic of life is something that comes beautifully gift-wrapped -- or that magic is something you discover on your own?
Planning elaborate events, daily crafts, and expensive vacations isn't harmful for children. But if the desire to do so comes from a place of pressure or even a belief that the aforementioned are a necessary part of one's youth, it's time to reevaluate.
A childhood without Pinterest crafts can be magical. A childhood without a single vacation can be magical. The magic we speak of and so desperately want our children to taste isn't of our creation, and therefore is not ours to dole out as we please. It is discovered in quiet moments by a brook or under the slide at the park, and in the innocent laughter of a life just beginning.
We constantly hear that children these days don't get enough exercise. Perhaps the most underused of all of their muscles is the imagination, as we seek desperately to find a recipe for something that already exists.


Jujuskin in Africa for skin care

  When I was in Africa, my interest in the natural world took root during my childhood in Africa. I remember the smells, the tastes, the colors, the street life, and the assorted creatures wandering in and out of doors. I remember playing at the trunk of a big tree with my brother, creating our own little world among the roots.
  JUJU means magic among some West African peoples, and to me, the Baobab is exactly that. Using different parts of the tree, I started mixing creams and scrubs at home in my kitchen. Working with these magical ingredients opened a new dimension of the natural world for me. I tested the formulas on myself, and my skin started to glow.I made JUJU for everyone, so we would not have to cover, color, and scent ourselves, disguising our individuality. These products care for our skin, enhancing the unique and subtle beauty in all of us.


Look for Mammy


My daddy named me Wei wei(卫唯), and I am 3 years old now. Today I wanted to draw though I have a broken heart. Before my daddy and mommy always quarreled and I am lonely with my mommy leaving us. Whatever, I drawed! The drawing is here as the following!

skull like

Do you like my drawing?

Mommy does not like her, so her left eye is with tears; Little friends do not like her, so her right eye is also with tears. But my daddy liked her, I brought her home!

I wanted to draw Mommy liked Hello Kitty originally, but drawing uncle told me that Hello Kitty was gone, was it because that my mommy was not here? But my little pig is also lovely?

Pig with tears

I don't want to leave from daddy, I want to be together with mommy and want to play together with other children.

My daddy always says I am lovely though I often awake him in the mid-night by asking for mommy.

Daddy told me that he liked Mommy and Mommy would be happy if she left from us; Daddy told me that he also liked me, must I leave from daddy to look for happy?

But I would rather stay together with Daddy and hoping who can see my Mommy and tell her I really really miss her! Daddy also really really miss her. Daddy and me is eager for her being back.

My picture is here now. Mommy told me before that  if who made her see my picture, she would be back. Would you please help to send my picture to her.





My Childhood

Born in Jan 1978, I am the second child in my family. My mom says I am a “Snake” because she gave birth to me at the end of Lunar year Snake, while I prefer to say I am “Tail of Snake and Head of Horse”. 
  We lived in the countryside of a county near to Fuzhou. Mom is a traditional peasant, and in her mind, the responsibility of her life was to get enough food for the family. She worked hard, leaving for the farmland at dawn and never returning until late. Unlike Mom, my dad never took himself as a peasant. He seldom stayed at home, and was always busy with his friends’ and neighbors’ business, and also because of this, Mom and Dad always quarreled with each other. Though I never think my dad is a good husband, he had been a good farther, and had taught me a lot. He used to take me with him when he visited his friends, take me to the cinema, and teach me how to be a well-behaved and polite boy. 
  In 1983, at the age of 5, I was sent to the kindergarten. Unlike my brother who was taken to the school by force, I like schooldays. The tuition was only one yuan, but we got balls of different sizes to play, and were taught many songs and games. What’s more, the school provided cakes and candies occasionally. Half a year later, our teacher gave birth to a baby, and the class was dismissed. 2 weeks later, I was happy to know that the baby became a member of my family as an adopted daughter. In the following half year, I stayed at home, helping my mom to take care of my sister.
   I resumed my study the following year. In primary school, my academic record was excellent, and was awarded as “San Hao student” each year. At that time, the school got little fund, and nine out of ten the rewards were 5 or 10 notebooks, so that was the only thing I could gave away generously to friends. I remember most of our teachers were from neighboring counties, and they lived at school. There was neither gas nor micro-oven in 1980s, and we cooked by burning dried leaves or tree branches. Our school was located at the foot of a hill with a creek in between, and once a month we will collect dried branches and leaves from the hill for our teachers, and all of us were proud of being able to do something for the school and our teachers. 
  Each year, we grew crops and vegetables, and mom also raised many cattle and fowls. Ever since my childhood, I had been a good hand to my mom. I would prepare the meals after school, and accompanied my mom to irrigate our crops late at nights. I helped my mom with the farm work also, but luckily I had never been a good farmer. On weekends, I would herd our buffalo with my friends. Buffalo is a kind of tamed animal, and we would ride on it while herding, imaging we were on horses. And if we were rid of doing that, we would tie them to trees, and played in the creeks. My mom would not allow me to learn swim, so I was always laughed at when the other kids were swimming joyfully in the creeks and I had to take cloths for them. And I also acted as a baby-sitter. At first, I liked my little sister much; as my mom was very busy, she used to “tie” my sister on my back, and I carried her wherever I went. But each time my neighbors would joke on me, referring to my sister as my child bride. Gradually, when I found out what that means, I rejected to carry her with any more, and my poor sister had to be stay at home and enjoyed herself. 
  In those days, we seldom got pocket money from our parents, so most of us got money by collecting and selling some kinds of herbs. Apart from buying some socks, I spent most of my money on rubber, pencil boxes—at that time, colorful pencil boxes were the best thing to show off among my little classmates. 
  From mid 80s, people in my hometown started to do some business cautiously, hoping to have more “Da tuan jie—the nickname for 10 Yuan note” in their pockets. Gradually some WanYuanHu appeared, among whom was one of my uncles. He raised white rabbits for their furs, and did earn some money. A couple of years later, my jobless farther started to raise rabbits also. However, that turned out to be a complete wrong decision as by then there had been too many rabbit raisers, and several months later my brother and I were the only happy ones in our family to enjoy delicious rabbit meat each day.
  After that, my farther tried some other business, but each time he ended up with failure. During those years, Mom still raised her cattle and fouls to support the family, which she thought were the right things for farmers.
   In retrospect, childhood was the happiest time in my life. I had few toys, no TV, and never had a chance to travel, but I derived a lot of fun from the nature. I net fishes, caught birds, herded cattle and even stole fruits occasionally. Over 20 years has passed, but I am still nostalgia for those days


My cherished childhood memories

Footsteps of years walk ceaselessly,having gone too soon ,I had already spent more or less than 30seasons. The most cherished memeory was when I was living with my grandmother,and at that time my ancle and aunt were in their 17’.I am their little pet ,an apple of their eyes, they gave me pin money, gave me little toy bear who have music that was magical to me at that time; the little plastic toy people who can move, when you twist the the mental that in the back of him. They hold me in their arms to sleep.Sure enough I had a happy childhood.My grantparets always took me to the field ,in there and I can turn the grass upside down ceaselessly to seize the grigs with curiousity,did not afraid the lalaseedling the grass that always scratch my skin.eventually I seized a grigs,its my triumph,I laughed and laughed,then I can observe him in the colse range,there! who had the legs full of saws,with two antennas in his slippy head , the wings he weared like a gentleman, I liked it very much!so I made the house for he,I dig the mud with my childhood friend, made the mud square shape,dig the mud out from the squre big mud ,then there had the space,I fecthed stickes and made them orderly pluged in the mud, and there were gap for fresh air and wind ,then the grips house was done.I put he in his big house ,with a grass in. put it besides my little creature made the my life happy.

summer is a beatiful season. I always barefooted ,with platic bags full of water in left hand ,and a stick attach a plastic bottle on its top in my right hand,dash to the pond edge, to salvaged the tadpole. They always in a great group ,as I through the bottle to the pond ,I always had many of them in my bottle,then put them in my plastic bag and dashed to home with much green alga in the bottle. I ask my grandparents give me the big transparet glass bottle to put them in ,with the green alga.At the beginning I can see the black creature with the green alga,the color which mathched so well,and I always mixed the ltttle white rock in ,sat still to watch the happy tadpole cheerfully swam from here to there. every now and then they will go to the little rock to sucked ,I like them .I discovered they should have friend on land,and I put the grig together with them ,i changed the bud house for grig to the glass caned bootle with the cap made holes by my aunts ,they can see each other,they lived harmoney with each company. .….The first time I learn to ride bycicle,which was newly bought for my little aunt, but I eagerly to ride it ,my anunts put  me on and holded it for me and loose hands lets go of his fingers, letting me balance myself, I scared cheerfully, after many times runed into ricks ……my cherished memories was my childhood,the frist day I wore new clothes with the new school bag; when I got to school and was late for lesson all the time Always day dreaming in the class till I don't even know the lessons done Then my teacher always tell me never ever be lazy again. played and always having fun with the nei***our next to me ,until the setting sun, Those were the days of my past I miss my hometown I miss my old friend When will I see them I recall the childhood full of happiness,that cannot come again,which are our treasure,the first time make house for the little creature and bring them up,the first time changed the water for little creature and watched them gradually from big head black tadpole to green big eyes frog………….today I have no time to dash to the pound with feetbared and even have I will shy…I no longer have the simplicity.The natural grass will not surround our house but the manicured lawn. All the plastic material surround fresh air but everynow and then smell the chemical from the dump…


High quality life and high standard living

  Quality of life is the measure of your overall life satisfaction level, while your standard of living is the measure of your earthly comforts. A person who displays a high quality life has peace, happiness, and a sense that he or she is a success not for the things of life, but for the intangibles such as a sense of community and life contribution. A person who enjoys a high standard living may have all the visible trappings of modern success such as the cars, houses, and toys; but without a high quality of life, these things are often unsatisfying. For most people, having a high quality life, with a reasonable standard living provides a worthwhile and satisfying life. For those who wish to pursue a high standard living  , it is important to keep a high quality life as well. You might think of the choice this way – with wisdom comes high quality life and with money comes high standard living.  Money is a great tool, but wisdom is far more valuable.



We are absurdly anxious about success, says popular philosopher Alain de Botton. In his talk from 2009, he suggests that many of our modern values — like our sense of limitless possibility and upward growth — can actually lead us to stress harder about how well we’re doing. But the reverse can also be true, says de Botton. For TED, he’s put together this reading list of (mainly) pessimistic philosophers who have inspired his thinking about positivity.

1. The Complete Essays

Michel de Montaigne

“Montaigne likes to point out that philosophers don’t know everything, and that they would be a lot wiser if they laughed at themselves a little more. He also writes in a personal and often very frank way designed to shock the prudish. ‘Kings and philosophers shit, and so do ladies,’ he says. ‘Even on the highest throne in the world, we are seated still upon our arses.'”

2. Letters from a Stoic

Lucius Annaeus Seneca

“Seneca belonged to the Stoic school of philosophy, which is all about teaching you how to respond calmly to disaster. We tend to imagine that cheering people up involves saying happy things. But Seneca says the saddest things — and strangely enough, he is very consoling. ‘What need is there to weep over parts of life?’ he asks. ‘The whole of it calls for tears.'”

3. Essays and Aphorisms

Arthur Schopenhauer

“Schopenhauer is another great pessimist who makes you feel happier. He makes some brilliant analyses of why love affairs tend to go wrong (he’s perfect to read after a breakup). His general drift is that you’d be mad to expect happiness from a relationship.”

4. The Twilight of the Idols

Friedrich Nietzsche

“A much-misunderstood philosopher, seen as barking mad but actually very wise and sane. He tells us nice things about the need for struggle in life. No pain, no gain, or as he put it: ‘That which does not kill you makes you stronger.'”

5. The collected works of Epicurus


“Epicurus was the first philosopher to say that pleasure was the most important thing in life. People took him to mean sensual pleasure, and the word ‘epicurean’ has been linked to gluttony ever since. But read the real Epicurus and you’ll see that his idea of pleasure was quite immaterial; in fact, it was all about having a group of good friends and reading books together outdoors.”

6. The Last Days of Socrates


“Plato recounts the last days of his mentor and teacher Socrates, famously made to drink hemlock by the people of Athens. It’s a tear-jerking account, as the funny and wise Socrates is put to death by his ignorant contemporaries. It’s also a lesson in how to stand up for your beliefs, and inspiration for anyone standing up against the will of the majority.”


The most considerate house moving company in the world


        Do you know where is the most considerate hosue moving company? You nee not to do anything. Just after a blink of your eye, all of your stuff including your personal computer, your favorite cup and even your shoes and stockings will be placed in the same places as you used to be. The only difference is that you are in the new apartment now.


What's a divine life?

You are essentially an eternal and imperishable divine spirit, you are immortal , you are not this perishable cage of flesh and bones, you are not merely this restless and impure mind filled with selfishness, anger, hatred, passion, greed, cravings, etc. Neither are you this limited and finite intellect, which is many a time prone to error and fails you at the time of need in solving your problems. But beyond body, senses, mind and intellect, you shine resplendent as an Eternal and Immortal Spirit.  
 The message of Divine Life calls upon mankind to realize that you are only a passing pilgrim here upon this planet earth. This is not your eternal dwelling Place.  The meaning and purpose of this earth life is  to make use of this life for this process of regaining your lost contact with the Divine .  This is the supreme goal of life. That is, liberation from all pain, sorrow and suffering and attainment of supreme Divine Bliss and eternal satisfaction in that state of liberated consciousness.
   To lead this Divine Life, you need not renounce your house and family, property and profession, you need not run away into some forests or mountain top and live in a cave. Even living as you are, leading your normal life of domestic set up and your professional life and activities and your social life, you can attain this supreme goal and become forever blessed.
To attain this, the way of Divine Life   is first and foremost to purify your heart and rid it of the dross and rubbish and impurity of selfishness by plunging into absolute dedicated selfless service.
 Selfless service is the foundation of Divine Life. Devotion and worship bring about a progress and an upward and  ascent in your life. As devotion and prayerfulness intensifies itself, the mind attains a state of concentration and you enter into a state of regular daily meditation upon the divine object of your quest. Regular daily meditation brings about steadiness and a feeling of abidance in God. You begin to feel the presence of God in your heart.  
When you begin to feel the presence of God, you become aware of the presence of God at all times, everywhere even in the midst of your activities. You begin to feel that you live, move and have your being in God. This is the power of meditation. It brings about in your life God-awareness and also it brings about in your thoughts, words and activities a new spiritual quality, which uplifts and elevates your life to a new standard of purity, of spirituality, of compassion, of kindness and holiness. Thus, you become a transformed being, a spiritual being with purity of character, with sublime sentiments, with spiritual emotions and lofty thoughts of the Divine. And  having entered into this state of God-awareness, your intellect becomes purified .




Youth is not a time of life; it is a state of mind. It is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips and supple knees. It is a matter of the will, a quality of the imagination, vigor of the emotions; it is the freshness of the deep spring of life.
Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. This often exits in a man of 60, more than a boy of 20.nobody grows merely by the number of years; we grow old by deserting our ideas. Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, fear, self-distrust1 bows the heart and turns the spirit back to dust.
Whether 60 or 16, there is in every human being’s heart the lure of wonders, the unfailing childlike appetite of what’s next and the joy of the game of living. In the center of your heart and my heart there is a wireless station; so long as it receives messages of beauty, hope, cheer, courage and power from men and from infinite, so long as you are young.
When the aerials are down, and your spirit is covered with the snows of cynicism and the ice of pessimism, then you’ve grown old, even at 20, but as long as your aerials are up, to catch waves of optimism, there’s hope you may die young at 80.
Youth is not a time of life; it is a state of mind. It is a matter of the will, a quality of the imagination, vigor of the emotions; it is the freshness of the deep spring of life. These are what I have and what we have at this period of life. So, I'm still young, yes, definitely ! Come on my fellow friends, show your energy and passion to this god damn world ! Let the universe hear our voice, see our cheek, hug our enthusiasm and witness our maturity. We're going to create a brand new future !

Comply with This Great Article About Laptops To Help You

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While you might get a employed product, the cost will be right! Keep in mind the audio system when purchasing a laptop computer. Some reduced laptops have a reduced amount. Hence, you will see that seem playback for video clips and movies is incredibly inadequate.


How to Be a Good Husband

"My wife has been my closest friend, my closest advisor. And ... she's not somebody who looks to the limelight, or even is wild about me being in politics. And that's a good reality check on me. When I go home, she wants me to be a good father and a good husband. And everything else is secondary to that." --Barack Obama.
Being a good husband starts with looking at your wedding vows. Use those as the touchstone by which you judge your performance as a husband. One common set of marriage vows goes like this:
"Will you love her, comfort and keep her, and forsaking all others, remain true to her as long as you both shall live?"
"With this ring I thee wed, and all my worldly goods I thee endow. In sickness and in health, in poverty or in wealth, 'til death do us part."

Loving Her
The first words in those vows are crucial. "Will you love her?"
Author Stephen Covey shares a story about a husband who came to him asking for advice on what he should do if he wasn't in love with his wife anymore.
Covey told the man, "Love her."

The frustrated husband explained again, in more detail, how he didn't have those feelings toward his wife anymore. They'd fallen out of love.
Covey explained to the man that "love" is a verb, and if he started loving his wife again, he'd start having the feelings for her again.
Love is about giving, not about taking. What you do for her is what gives you the satisfaction of loving.
What things do you do when you love someone?

  1. You put her needs ahead of your own.
  2. You give to her without thinking about what you're getting in return.
  3. You forgive her for her faults and mistakes.
  4. You listen to her.
  5. You encourage her.

Comforting Her
Marriage counselors don't talk about it much, but comforting your wife is one of your primary roles as a husband. (It's right there in the vows, remember?)
You're not only there to comfort your wife when she's devastated because her mom just died. You're also there to comfort her when the kids have worn her patience to a nub. You're also there to comfort her when she has a headache. You're also there to comfort her when she doesn't feel pretty.
Men tend to want to solve problems and offer solutions to others with problems. But often, what women need is comfort, not solutions.

Forsaking All Others
This one's simple. You promised to have a single wife for the rest of your life. So if you have a mistress or a girlfriend, then you're not keeping your promise.
Want to be a good husband? Get rid of the girlfriend.
Want to be a good husband? Don't put yourself in situations where you'll be tempted to break your vows.
Put the effort you'd put into covering up an illicit relationship into improving your relationship with your wife instead. It will pay untold dividends.

All My Worldly Goods
A friend of mine explained to me once that when you're married, you don't have a glass of soda any more. It's not yours.
It belongs to your wife too.
That made a big impression on me. If you want to be a good husband, then you have to take the attitude that all your worldly goods belong to her just as much as they do to her.
What does this mean?
A good husband doesn't loan money to his deadbeat pals secretly.
A good husband doesn't blow money gambling when his wife disapproves.
A good husband doesn't let his wife do without good clothes or anything else she needs. She should be able to dress as nicely as you do, eat as well as you do, and enjoy all the other physical comforts you enjoy.

In Sickness and in Health
This means you keep these promises whether or not she's sick. Being sick isn't just a matter of having a cold or cancer either. Mental illnesses and spiritual illnesses count too.
If a wife suffers from a mental illness like depression, a good husband stands by her.
If a wife suffers from a spiritual illness like alcoholism, a good husband stands by her.
If a wife suffers from a physical illness like obesity, a good husband stands by her.
This doesn't mean that a good husband ignores his wife's unwillingness to get treatment for her ills. But it does mean that you stay with her and patiently, consistently continue to comfort her and help her with whatever treatment she needs. And it means you'll continue to do so until one of you dies.

It's a Tall Order
Being a good husband is a tall order. Like running a marathon, it's not easy, and it's not for everyone. But also like running a marathon, being a good husband brings untold benefits, not the least of which is the ability to look in the mirror and know you've accomplished something really difficult.


How to Get Your Wife Back

"For two people in a marriage to live together day after day is unquestionably the one miracle the Vatican has overlooked." --Bill Cosby
Every marriage is different.
But most spouses have the same wants:

  1. Wives want to feel appreciated
  2. Wives want to feel respected
  3. Wives want to feel loved

If your wife left you, then you're devastated.
You can take steps to get your wife back though. Taking a hard look at yourself and your marriage is the first step.

Identify the Problems in Your Marriage or Relationship
Consider who ran the marriage. Was your marriage open to joint communication and input or were you controlling?
Decide whether you were both happy with the decision making in your marriage.
If you had to identify one or two qualities about yourself that your wife disliked, what would they be?
Did your wife ever complain specifically about the marriage or you? If so, identify her complaints.

Assess Whether or Not You're Willing to Make Changes
Decide if you want your wife back badly enough to make changes that will make her happy.
Would you be willing to go to counseling so that you can become the type of person she wants?
Can you make changes and still be comfortable with yourself?
If so, correct the problems that drove your wife away:

  • If you cheated, get rid of the other woman and try celibacy while you work on getting back your wife,
  • If you had financial problems, work on paying off your debts and becoming employed or getting a higher paying job.
  • If you drifted apart, become a better communicator and do your best to reconnect socially with your wife.

Identify the Qualities that Made Your Wife Marry You
What are your best attributes? You were able to turn on the charm and get your wife to marry you once. You may be able to do it again, given the opportunity.
Maximize your assets and stay positive. Decide whether you continued to have those traits during your marriage. Sometimes it is easy to take a marriage for granted and not have time to woo the wife the way you did when you were single.

Stay in Your Wife's Life
It is harder to win back the affection of someone you never see. If you have children, they will provide the means for you to stay in touch with your wife, particularly if you share joint custody and see them just as frequently.
If you do not have children, find a reason to stay in close contact with your wife. Move nearby and use common interests to stay in touch. Frequent places where you are likely to see her and be open and friendly when you do.
Be helpful to your wife. Try to see your wife on a platonic basis and be charming, but not pushy. Help her remember why she loved you in the first place in a non-threatening manner. Don't push sex because she may not trust you or be ready.
Show her, rather than tell her that you love her, but do not make yourself too accessible. Most people like a challenge, so be available enough so that she knows what she is missing, but not so available that she loses interest.
Be responsible and keep up with any financial or child-related responsibilities to your wife. Make sure that your good qualities shine and that she turns to you for problems.

Enlist Help
Your friends can help you find a way to your wife's heart. If your wife is close-mouthed about her life without you, your common friends may be more than willing to share what they know. If they think the two of you belong together, they may do what they can to help or will build you up to your wife.
Use your friends as a buffer to get your wife to join you in group social events when you are first trying to reconnect with her. Your friends may organize gatherings and include both of you at the function.
Most children want their parents to reconnect and your children are in the best position to create opportunities for you and your wife to interact. Don't be afraid to call your wife about parenting issues either. You want to be on the same page when it comes to giving permission and disciplining your children.
In some situations, your in-laws may even be willing to help you get your wife back. If they still keep in touch with you, they probably will do all they can to help save their daughter's marriage, especially if they know you are sincere and willing to do whatever it takes.

Communicate Openly and Accept What She Is Willing to Give
Keep the lines of communication open even if things do not progress as fast as you want. Let your wife know when you've completed an action that may have improved a complaint she had during marriage. For example, if money was tight and you have a new job making more money let her know about it.
Try to casually date your wife if she seems to talk to you openly and rely on you. Take an interest in what your wife enjoys and encourage her to share your interests as well.
As your relationship improves, suggest trying to reconnect and tell your wife what steps you have taken to help improve your relationship. Invite your wife to join you in counseling. Indicate your interest, but do not rush your wife.
Be willing to accept a temporary move back living arrangement if that makes your wife more comfortable. It will be your job to make sure it becomes permanent.

After You've Won Her Back
Once your wife is back, remember to show your appreciation:

  • Compliment her once in a while.
  • Thank her for small everyday things she does for you.
  • Surprise her occasionally. You needn't spend a lot of money as long as she knows you are thinking of her. A text message that says "I love you" can brighten her day or a freshly made cup of coffee before work.
  • Let her know why she is special to you.

Sadomasochism, Sexual Excitement, and Perversion

Writer : Otto F. Kernberg, M.D.



SadomasochismSadomasochism, an ingredient of infantile sexuality, is an essential part of normal sexual functioning and love relations, and of the very nature of sexual excitement.  Sadomasochistic elements are also present in all sexual perversions.  Sadomasochism starts out as the potential for erotic masochism in both sexes, and represents a very early capacity to link aggression with the libidinal elements of sexual excitement.  Sexual excitement may be considered a basic affect that overcomes primitive splitting of love and hatred.  Erotic desire is a more mature form of sexual excitement.

Psychoanalytic exploration makes it possible to uncover the unconscious components of sexual excitement:  wishes for symbiotic fusion and for aggressive penetration and intermingling; bisexual identifications; the desire to transgress oedipal prohibitions and the secretiveness of the primal scene, and to violate the boundaries of a teasing and withholding object.  The relation between these wishes and the development of erotic idealization processes in both sexes is explored in the context of a critical review of the pertinent psychoanalytic literature.


Sadomasochism, an ingredient of infantile sexuality, is an essential part of normal sexual functioning and love relations.  It is an essential part of the very nature of sexual excitement.  Sexual excitement is a basic affect:  it is a fundamental constituent of libido, which I see as a hierarchically supraordinate drive.  This idea is in consonance with proposals in my earlier work that consider affects as the "building blocks" of drives (1976, pp. 85?07);

Associate Chairman and Medical Director, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Westchester Division; Professor of Psychiatry, Cornell University Medical College; Training and Supervising Analyst, Columbia University Center for Psychoanalytic Training and Research.

Presented at the panel on "Sadomasochism in the Perversions," Fall Meeting of the American Psychoanalytic Association, New York, December 17, 1988.  Accepted for publication April 27, 1989. (1982; in press).  Sadomasochism may present as a specific perversion.  This perversion is characterized by deriving pleasure from inflicting or receiving pain as an obligatory precondition for achieving sexual gratification and orgasm.  This obligatory precondition implies a restriction in the variety, scope, and flexibility of sexual life.  The degree of severity of this perversion depends on the degree of ego and superego pathology.

My basic theoretical frame stems from Freud's (1905) description of infantile sexuality.  However, I consider the source of the libidinal drive to lie not in the excitation of erogenous zones per se, but in the affect of sexual excitement, which incorporates zonal excitation together with the cognitive aspects of early object relations and other communicative, neurovegetative, and psychomotor substructures of this affect.  My view of sexual excitement as a basic affect also incorporates Erikson's elaboration of the theory of infantile sexuality in terms of modes and modalities of object relations implied in the activation of zonal excitation (Erikson, 1963, pp. 72?08).

In earlier work (1986), (1988a), (1989) I stressed the crucial importance of the levels of personality organization梚n other words, of psychic structure梬hen assessing perversions.  The difference between perverse fantasies and their symbolic enactment in sexual relations and love, on the one hand, and a consolidated perverse structure, on the other, depends on the nature of ego and superego organization.

The psychodynamic meanings of perverse fantasies and actions lie on a continuum, from normality to psychopathic perversion.  The structural characteristics of the different clinical types and degrees of perversion vary greatly, according to whether they are associated with an integrated tripartite structure of normality and neurosis, at the one extreme, a borderline and narcissistic personality structure in the intermediate realm, or with the syndromes of malignant narcissism, antisocial personality structure, and perverse organization in psychosis, at the other extreme.  The degree to which the perverse tendencies are transformed into action depends on the predominance of aggressive over libidinal components in the individual's instinctual equilibrium and the regressive nature of his personality structure, including the regression and/or disintegration of the superego, the predominance of splitting processes in the ego, the consolidation of a pathological grandiose self, and the weakening and loss of ego boundaries.


Some Illustrative Cases

The following five cases illustrate sadomasochism at various levels of psychopathology, short of actual psychosis.  Listed in the order of the severity of the pathology, they should serve to put my discussion in context.

Case 1

The patient, a man in his early twenties, masturbated on the roofs of buildings and threw bricks on women walking on the street below; he reached orgasm at the moment when he either hit a victim or observed the extreme fright of a potential victim.  This patient, temporarily hospitalized at the time of his evaluation under court order, presented a sadistic perversion unmitigated by any sense of guilt or any capacity of concern for his victims or for himself.  He also evinced a combination of grandiosity, arrogance, and contempt as dominant characterological features.  He illustrates the combination of a sexual perversion and a total deterioration or absence of superego functions in the context of a narcissistic personality structure.  He was clinically not psychotic, and I formulated the diagnosis of a sadistic perversion in an antisocial personality.  Sadistic perversion can also be present as part of psychosis, a further degree of this extreme psychopathology.

Case 2

A man, in his late thirties, was in psychoanalytic treatment because of a long-standing incapacity to commit himself to any loving relationship with a woman, sexual promiscuity, and growing dissatisfaction with his sexual life.  He was white and had a black mistress, a colleague at work with whom he collaborated in creative projects.  She loved him, accepting the limitations of their relationship, which had a sporadic, discontinuous quality stemming from him.  Although he had had homosexual experiences in the past, and considered himself "potentially bisexual" as an expression of his sexual freedom and superiority, his current sexual experiences were almost exclusively heterosexual.

What he enjoyed most with his current mistress was a triangular situation:  Having persuaded her to participate in a m閚age ?trois, he would offer her as a sexual partner to a close male friend.  His sexual excitement peaked when, while she was having intercourse with his friend in the patient's presence, she would look at him with a loving expression indicating that she was submitting herself to this sexual relationship only because he had asked her to, and with him in mind as her sexual object.  Analytic exploration revealed that the meanings of this scene included his unconscious wish to humiliate her as revenge against a hated maternal figure, and the reenactment and magical reversal of his fantasy of being the "excluded third party" of the primal scene:  in his fantasy, it was now his friend (= father) who was really the excluded third party.  While this was not an exclusive, obligatory, and constant aspect of his sexual behavior, it constituted his most intense and enjoyable way of achieving sexual gratification.  This patient presented a narcissistic personality, and, in the transference, a typical "perverse" development (Kernberg, 1985) in the sense of a transformation of everything "good" received into something "bad."  He showed a consistent though unconscious effort to utilize the understanding gained from me to demonstrate his independence from me, the futility of psychoanalysis, and the superiority of sadistic enjoyment to any other type of human interaction.  At the same time, however, this patient presented good superego functions in all nonsexualized aspects of his daily life, and responded positively to psychoanalytic treatment over an extended period of time.

Case 3

This case, reported in another context in an earlier publication (1976, pp. 181?82), is of a woman with severe sexual inhibition, a lifelong incapacity to masturbate because, immediately following any sexual excitement, the face of her mother would flash up in her mind stopping her from further masturbatory activity.  Her only erotically exciting behavior was represented by cutting herself in various parts of her body; the excitement was produced by observing blood flowing from these wounds (unconsciously representing an infinite number of tiny vaginas).  She developed, in the course of her treatment, the fantasy in the transference that, if I were willing to shoot and kill her, she would feel fully gratified sexually.  My killing her would mean that she mattered to me more than anything else in my life, and it would unite us forever in a way in which no other human interaction could.  This patient, with a severe personality disorder involving schizoid, masochistic, and obsessive features, functioned on a borderline level of personality organization.  She responded very well to psychoanalytic psychotherapy over several years (with an early resolution of her self-mutilating tendency), but her sexual inhibition diminished only very slowly and gradually over the years.  This patient illustrates a masochistic sexual organization at a very primitive level, in the context of both lack of activation of ordinary pleasurable features of sexual excitement and an inordinate development of the aggressive components of it.  Here, the aggression dominant within sexual excitement was matched with a well-integrated yet extremely sadistic and self-punitive superego.

Case 4

The patient, a man in his middle forties, was impotent with his current girlfriend, a woman he loved deeply but with whom he was shy, at times even submissive, although he could be sexually free and fully potent in sadistic involvements with other women if they followed a carefully designed and ritualized protocol.  The woman with whom he could be sexually potent had to receive him at the door of the apartment on her knees, suck his penis, then guide him to the bedroom where she undressed, was tied up, and whipped with a careful limitation of the degree of pain or lesions that he inflicted on her.  When she appeared to experience only pain and no longer sexual excitement, whipping her lost its attraction for him.  He ended his sexual encounter with satisfactory genital intercourse and no potency problems.  He had this arrangement with several women over the years, and, apart from this specific scenario, he was concerned and helpful to, though not in love with, these women.  This patient presented a sadistic perversion at a neurotic level of personality organization and a personality structure with hysterical and obsessive features.  Psychoanalytic exploration revealed that his perverse ritual protected him against underlying castration anxiety, frightening competition with a powerful and dominant father, and an unconscious sense of himself as a little boy who would not be able to gratify the idealized oedipal mother.

Case 5

This is the case of a woman in her early forties with a depressive-masochistic personality structure, in a late stage of her psychoanalytic treatment, during the course of which she was able to resolve an incapacity to achieve orgasm in intercourse with her husband, after many years of marriage.  In one session, she developed the fantasy in the transference that she would come to a session, undress totally, and I would be so impressed by her breasts and her genitals that I would become a complete slave to her desire, respond by getting sexually excited and having intercourse with her, and she, in turn, would then be willing to become my slave and leave everything to follow me.

The only daughter of a dominant, prohibitive mother who was intolerant of any sexual manifestations in her daughter, and of a warm yet distant father who spent time away during extended periods of her childhood, she became immediately aware of the connections between her wish for a sexual relation with me and the rebellion against mother implied in the wish to seduce father away from her.  To make me her slave combined the wishes for my full acceptance of her genitals and her sexuality, while punishing me for having preferred other women (her mother), and offering herself in turn for slavery to expiate her guilt.  But she also experienced the enactment of the slavery fantasy as an exciting expression of aggression without having to fear its inhibiting effects on her sexual pleasure.  To the contrary, she felt that this aggression would heighten the gratification of total intimacy and fusion in the reciprocity of slave and master involvement.  Following that session, she was able to ask her husband, for the first time, in the middle of sexual intercourse, to pinch her nipples forcefully, which he did with intense sexual excitement, permitting her, in turn, to scratch his back deeply, so that he bled, and both, for the first time, reached an intense orgasm together.

In analyzing this experience, she expressed the fantasy that her husband was like a hungry, frustrated infant biting mother's breasts, and she, as mother, could gratify his needs while tolerating his aggression, that is, a powerful, understanding, and giving mother.  At the same time, she felt, she was also a sexual woman relating to her husband-infant who thus was not a threatening father, and yet taking revenge against father who had abandoned her as well as against her husband himself, who had caused her pain, by causing him in turn to bleed.  And she felt that to scratch him while embracing him tightly intensified their fusion and her sense that she could participate in his orgasm while he could participate in hers.  The case of this patient, approaching completion of her analysis, illustrates important normal facets of sexual excitement, to be specified further on.

The Spectrum of Sadomasochism

In summarizing my view of the dynamic and genetic aspects of sadomasochism as a perversion (1989), I pointed out that, in contrast to the traditional relegation of polymorphous perverse features as appropriate merely to sexual foreplay, I consider them a crucial aspect of normal sexuality.  These polymorphous perverse features emerge in many unconscious and conscious fantasies regarding sexual intercourse, and in the general erotic and emotional interactions of the sexual couple.  Organized perversions at a neurotic level of personality organization do present, in both sexes, the psychodynamics originally proposed by Freud (1905), psychodynamics centering on the fixation at a partial, component drive in defense against full genital sexuality with its oedipal implications, the threat of incest, and castration anxiety.

What is striking about sadism and masochism and, in practice, the various combinations of these complementary sexual orientations, is that sadomasochistic elements can be found not only along the entire spectrum from normality to severe psychopathology, but as an essential component of all other perverse elements of sexuality.  Thus, in voyeurism, exhibitionism, fetishism, bestiality, homosexuality, transvestism, we clinically always find sadomasochistic elements, and a careful study of the entire literature points to the indissoluble connection between sadomasochism and sexuality in general.  Stoller (1985) has pointed to the universal nature of aggression as an aspect of sexual excitement, but has also stated that "when present, it is often a whisper, not a roar, and only a part, not the whole" (p. 42).

Cases of stable perversion and borderline personality organization, in contrast to perversions at a neurotic level of personality organization, typically present the dynamics described by British and French authors (Chasseguet-Smirgel, 1985a), (1986); (McDougall, 1978); (Meltzer, 1973), and they show the same condensation of oedipal and preoedipal conflicts under the dominance of preoedipal aggression characteristic of borderline personality organization itself.  This condensation includes a regressive primitivization of the oedipal conflict, characterized by extremely primitive and threatening images of both parents, threatening combined father-mother images, and regressive distortions of unconscious perceptions of the functions of the genitals and the primal scene.  It is clinically very different from the defensive regression to preoedipal stages of development found in patients with neurotic personality organization.  Patients whose polymorphous perverse features are totally inhibited not because of repression, but from lack of activation of early eroticism (that is, some extremely inhibited borderline but not hysterical patients) present the same borderline dynamics.  Their sexual inhibitions are the most severe that we encounter in clinical practice.

Sexual perversions in the narcissistic personality structure, particularly in malignant narcissism, show the psychodynamic constellations outlined by Chasseguet-Smirgel (1985a), (1985b), (1986).  The full deployment of a regressive "anal universe" described by her overlaps the syndrome of malignant narcissism plus an organized perversion.  The primitive destruction in unconscious fantasy of the contents of mother's belly as part of a general intolerance of reality, of the differentiation of sex and ages, and of the acknowledgment of the oedipal father, with a consequent severe disturbance in cognitive processes as well, are typical for the most severe of these cases of perversion in narcissistic personalities.

The cases I have described illustrate an additional aspect of my clinical experience, namely, that, while sadomasochism as an organized perversion (like all organized perversions) is probably more frequent in men (Money, 1988), I have found that sadomasochistic fantasies are probalbly more frequent in women, particularly in their masturbation fantasies.

The most prevalent psychoanalytic view about this apparent predominance of organized perversion in men links it with a greater intensity of castration anxiety in men.  This seems a reasonable hypothesis, and I would suggest the possibility that, in addition, the differences in the sexual development of men and women play a role.

It seems reasonable to assume that the psychosexual disturbances related to early oedipal and preoedipal conflicts are played out more directly in boys' genital sexual life, and more diffusely in vicissitudes of the little girl's emotional involvements, particularly with father.  Braunschweig and Fain's (1971) formulations regarding the differential early development of boys and girls, which I shall spell out later on, may be relevant to this issue.

Sadomasochism, I believe, starts out as the potential for erotic masochism梖or sexual excitement with pain梚n both sexes, and constitutes a very early capability to link aggression with the libidinal elements of sexual excitement in an essential way, thus paving the road toward the entire spectrum of sadomasochism at all levels of development and pathology.  In light of clinical experience, it seems reasonable to assume that the experience of severe pain may intensify the attachment to the representation of the inflicter of pain, and bring about both a transformation of pain experienced into very early forms of aggression, and varying degrees of erotization of that painful experience and its aggressive elements.  It is as if sexuality had, as one of its functions, the neutralization of aggression by incorporating it into the very fabric of sexual excitement.  The unconscious identification with the aggressor linked with the erotization of pain facilitates a sexualization of primitive omnipotence, a primitive condensation of love and hatred that may proceed in several directions.

The profound sexual excitement and gratification derived from the expression of sadomasochistic impulses in the context of a sexually gratifying relationship points to the fundamental need to integrate love and hatred while assuring the dominance of love.  Sexual excitement, in this regard, may be considered a basic affect that permits overcoming primitive splitting of love and hatred, and tolerating ambivalence.  Hatred, we might say, is "coopted" by love.  As the counterpart of this progressive development, under extremely pathological circumstances, the loving, affectionate aspects of sexual excitement may be recruited by the aggressive elements, leading to perversity, the malignant recruitment of love at the service of aggression, illustrated in Case 2, above.

Clinical Characteristics of Sexual Excitement and Erotic Desire

Let us now examine the characteristics of sexual excitement as we encounter them through psychoanalytic exploration.  First, sexual excitement is an affect.  It would seem trivial to state this, were it not that sexual excitement is so regularly left out of the studies of affect in the psychoanalytic, neuropsychological, developmental, and physiological literature.  It has only been in recent years that psychoanalytic studies of sexual excitement in early development have been carried out, particularly by Stoller (1979), (1985) in this country, and Braunschweig and Fain (1971), (1975) in France.  Not surprisingly, we find phenomenological descriptions of sexual excitement in literary essays, poetry, and philosophy; Bataille (1957), Singer (1973), and Scruton (1985) provide detailed descriptions of its psychological, subjective aspects.

Affect can be defined as a subjective experience of a pleasurable or painful nature, with physiological concomitants of that experience (both in characteristic psychomotor manifestations and neurovegetative phenomena), cognitive aspects of that subjective state consistently involving a relationship between self and other under the impact of that experience, and a communicative function conveyed by expressive, particularly facial, movements.  Sexual excitement fulfills all these requirements.

It is customary to differentiate sexual excitement he diffuse activation of the sexual affect rom erotic desire concrete direction of that affect toward a particular object nd from love he integration of erotic desire with the complex affects implied in a tender, loving relationship.  Insofar as erotic desire expresses a highly individualized wish for a sexual relationship with a particular object, it may indeed be differentiated from sexual excitement per se, but not because sexual excitement is objectless.  In sexual excitement, similarly to other affects, an object is present, but it is not yet the fully crystallized object of the specific unconscious wish that characterizes erotic desire; it is, rather, a primitive part-object unconsciously reflecting the fusional experiences of symbiosis and merger wishes of early separation-individuation.  In its origins, in the first few years of life, sexual excitement is diffuse, and dominantly linked to the object-related implications of the functions of erogenous zones.  In contrast, in erotic desire the affect is more elaborated and the specific nature of the object relation is cognitively more differentiated.  Erotic desire, in short, is a more mature form of sexual excitement.  This may be a minor point, but I wish to stress that, in clinical practice, similarly to what characterizes other affects, we never find sexual excitement without an implied, conscious or unconscious object relation activated in the context of that affect.

This discussion relates to Freud's (1905) description of libido as a drive, originating in the stimulation of the erogenous zones, characterized by a particular aim and an object.  In my view, libido originates in primitive affect states, including the peak affect state of elation characterizing the early infant-mother relation and characteristic of symbiotic experience and fantasy.  Affectionate, and generally pleasurable, experiences with mother under ordinary, quiescent states are also integrated into libidinal strivings.  Sexual excitement is a later and more differentiated affect; it enters as a crucial component of libido as a drive, but the origin of sexual excitement as an affect resides in the integration of multizonal erogenous excitement.  Insofar as sexual excitement as an affect involves the total field of psychic experience, it is not limited to the stimulation of any particular erogenous zones, but generalizes pleasurable sensations to the entire body.

Sexual excitement also includes the erotic experience of painful stimulation and, at an unconscious level, the activation of unconscious fusion experiences under the sign of peak negative affect states.  I believe that the affect of sexual excitement is the core element of libido, and that, while libido originates in pleasurable peak-affect experiences he affect of elation in the relation with mother (Kernberg, in press), this elation gradually takes on the characteristics of sexual excitement as a later, more complex affect state.

To highlight that we never find sexual excitement that does not have the implication of a conscious or unconscious object choice, I shall talk about erotic desire as the higher-level affect of which sexual excitement may be considered the precursor.  What are the clinical characteristics of erotic desire as uncovered by psychoanalytic exploration?

A first characteristic of erotic desire is a search for pleasure always oriented to another person, an object to be penetrated or invaded or to be penetrated or invaded by.  It is a longing for closeness, fusion, and for intermingling that has a quality both of a forceful crossing of a barrier and becoming one with the other person.  The concrete sexual fantasies refer to invasion, penetration, or appropriation, and include, at the level of conscious or unconscious fantasy, the relations between bodily protrusions and bodily openings:  penis, nipple, tongue, finger, feces on the penetrating or invasive site, and vagina, mouth, anus, on the receptive or encompassing site.  The rhythmic stimulation of these bodily zones promises erotic pleasure, but that pleasure loses its gratifying quality when it does not serve the broader function of intermingling with an object.  "Container" and "contained" are not to be confused with masculine and feminine, active and passive; we find fantasies of active incorporation and being penetrated passively together with fantasies of active penetration and being incorporated passively.  Psychological bisexuality in the sense of the identification with both self and object in the specific sexual interaction is universal for men and women.  One might say that bisexuality is first of all a function of identification with both participants of a sexual relation, or with all three in the triangulation of sexual experience.

A second characteristic of erotic desire is gratification from identification with the other sex, more precisely, with the sexual excitement and orgasm of the sexual partner, with a condensation of two complementary experiences of fusion.  The first element here is the pleasure derived from the desire of the other, the love expressed in the other's response to the sexual desire of the self, and the associated experience of fusion in ecstasy.  Together with this is the sense of becoming both sexes at the same time, of overcoming temporarily that ordinarily unbreachable barrier separating the sexes, with a sense of completion and enjoyment of the penetrating and encompassing, penetrated and enclosed aspect of sexual invasion.  In this connection, a symbolic displacement of all "penetrating" parts of the anatomy among each other, and of all "encompassing" or "penetrable" openings on the other signal the condensation of eroticism from all zones, a normal regression in sexual excitement to "zonal confusion" (Meltzer, 1973), and the consequent confluence, in each concrete sexual activity or contact, of fantasies and experiences reflecting the entire body surface of both participants.  In this identification with the other there is a gratification of the wish for fusion, of homosexual longings, and also of oedipal rivalry in that, by implication, all other relationships disappear in contrast to the unique and fused one of the sexual pair.  By the same token, unconsciously identifying with both sexes eliminates the need to envy the other sex.  In remaining oneself while becoming the other as well, there is a sense of achievement of intersubjective transcendence.

A third characteristic of erotic desire is a sense of transgression, of overcoming the prohibitions implied in all sexual encounters, a prohibition derived from the oedipal structuring of sexual life.  This sense of transgression takes many forms.  The simplest and most universal is the transgression against conventional morality, the ordinary social constraints that protect the intimacy of body surfaces as well as the intimacy of sexual excitement from public display.  Stendhal (1822) pointed out that the very act of undressing repeals social notions of shame and permits lovers to face each other in a shameless way; getting dressed after the sexual encounter is a return to conventional shamefulness.  Within the frame of conventional morality (Kernberg, 1987), there is a consistent tendency to suppress or regulate those aspects of sexual encounter most directly related to infantile polymorphous sexual aims; it is these aims, prototypically framed in the sexual perversions, that express most directly sexual excitement and erotic intimacy and the transgression of social conventions.

In a deeper sense, transgression includes transgressing oedipal prohibitions against sexual intimacy with the oedipal parent of the other sex, thus constituting a defiance of as well as a triumph over the oedipal rival.  But transgression also includes transgression against the sexual object itself experienced as seductively teasing and withholding.  Sexual excitement involves a sense that the object is both offering and withholding itself, and sexual penetration or engulfing of the object is a violation of the latter's boundaries.  In this sense, transgression involves aggression against the object, aggression that is exciting in its pleasurable gratification, reverberating with the capacity to experience pleasure in pain and the projection of that capacity onto the object.  The aggression is also pleasurable because it is being contained by a loving relationship.  And so we have the incorporation of aggression into love and the assurance of safety in the face of unavoidable ambivalence.

The ecstatic and aggressive aspect of the search for loss of boundaries of the self represents a related deep and complex aspect of erotic desire.  Bataille (1957) proposed that the most intense experiences of transcendence occur under the sign of love and under the sign of aggression.  It is one of the most dramatic aspects of human functioning that the breakdown of boundaries between self and other occurs at points of deepest regression into ecstatic love and under conditions of extreme pain.  The intimacy that develops between torturer and tortured, and its dramatic effects on the psychic experience of both participants, may well originate in the most primitive, ordinarily dissociated or repressed, awareness of fused, "all-bad" relations between self and object, which constitute the counterpart of the split-off "all-good" object in the symbiotic stage of development.

Setting aside the question of whether the symbiotic stage (Mahler and Furer, 1968) is the first stage of development of internalized object relations, or whether, as Stern (1985) proposes, it is a later and perhaps only limited or pathological development, sexual excitement and orgasm facilitate an experience of fusion with the other that provides an ultimate sense of fulfillment, of transcending the limits of the self.  They also facilitate, in one stroke, a sense of oneness with the biological aspects of personal experience.  By the same token, however, to be the object of pain induced by another, and to identify with the aggressive object as well as experiencing oneself as its victim creates a sense of union in pain that reinforces the fusion in love.  To induce pain in the other, and to identify with the erotic pleasure in pain of the other, is the counterpart of erotic masochism.  Sexual excitement, in this regard, also includes an element of surrender, of accepting a state of enslavement to the other as well as being master of the other's fate.  The last of the cases I briefly mentioned illustrates this aspect of sexual excitement.  The extent to which this aggressive fusion will be contained by love is importantly mediated by the superego, the guardian of the frame of love containing aggression.  In short, both in pleasure and in pain there is a search for a peak affect experience that, temporarily, erases the boundaries of the self, a peak affect experience that gives a fundamental meaning to life, a transcendence that links sexual engagement with religious ecstasy and the experience of freedom beyond the boundary control of daily existence.

The idealization of the body of the other or the objects that symbolically represent that body are an essential aspect of sexual excitement.  Lussier (1982) and Chasseguet-Smirgel (1985b) have pointed to the central function of idealization in, respectively, fetishism and perversion in general.  This idealization represents the denial of anal regression in perversion, and the denial of castration anxiety by idealizing a partial, safer, limited aspect of sexual behavior.  While I agree with the important function of idealization as a mechanism in pathology, I also believe (1989) that the idealization of the sexual partner's anatomy, the surface of his or her body, is a crucial aspect of the normal integration of tender and erotic strivings in both heterosexual and homosexual love relations.  This erotic idealization parallels the normal idealization processes in romantic love described by Chasseguet-Smirgel (1985a), namely, the projection of the ego ideal onto the loved object with a simultaneous increase in self-esteem.

The replication of the ego ideal in the form of the idealized love object creates a sense of harmony in the world, the actualization of one's value system and aesthetic ideals:  morality and beauty are actualized in the love relation.  Meltzer and Williams (1988) have proposed the existence of an early "esthetic conflict" linked to the infant's attitude to mother's body.  The infant's love for mother, in this view, is expressed in the idealization of the surface of her body and, by introjection of the mother's love expressed in the idealization of the infant's body, an identification with her in this self-idealization.  This idealization would give rise to the earliest sense of esthetic value, of beauty.

Following Meltzer and Williams, the split-off aggression toward mother would, in contrast, be directed mainly toward the inside of her body, and, by projection, in experiencing the inside of mother's body as dangerous.  From this viewpoint, the desire and fantasy of violent invasion of mother's body is an expression of aggression, of envy of her outside beauty as well as of her capacity to give life and love, and the idealization of mother's bodily surfaces, a defense against the dangerous aggression lurking under that surface.  The origin of the idealization of woman's body on the part of men is consistently traceable to the idealization of and excitement with the surface of mother's body, similarly to the origins of the unconscious fears linked to the vagina and the interior of women's bodies.

Chasseguet-Smirgel's (1986) contribution to the archaic aspects of the Oedipus complex (the fantasied destruction of the differentiated organs of mother's body, of father's penis, and father's babies; and the transformation of mother's inside into an infinite, limitless cavity) is an important clarification of the nature of primitive aggression and fears directed to the interior of mother's body.  Also, in men, the idealization of the body parts of homosexual partners can regularly be traced back to the idealization of mother's body.  The idealization of male body parts is originally much less prominent in women, but this capacity develops in the context of a gratifying sexual relation with a man, who unconsciously represents the oedipal father in reaffirming a woman's body's beauty and value and thus liberates her genital sexuality from its early infantile inhibition.  In both sexes, the integration of the tender and erotic elements of object relations provides more depth and complexity to the idealization of body surfaces as well.

The body of the beloved becomes a geography of personal meanings, so that the fantasied early polymorphous perverse relations to the parental objects are condensed with the admiring and invasive relation to the lover's body parts.  Erotic desire is rooted in the pleasure of unconscious enacting polymorphous perverse fantasies and activities, including the symbolic activation of the earliest object relations of the infant with mother, and of the small child with both parents.  All of this is expressed in the perverse components of sexual play and intercourse  fellatio, cunnilingus, anal penetration, and in exhibitionistic, voyeuristic, and sadistic sexual play.  Here the deep links between the early relation with mother in both sexes and the enjoyment of the interpenetration of bodily surfaces, protuberances, and cavities are central.  Mother's physical ministrations of the infant activate the erotic awareness of his or her own body surfaces, and, by projection, the erotic awareness of the body surfaces of mother.  Love received in the form of erotic stimulation of body surfaces becomes the stimulus for erotic desire as a vehicle for the expression of love and gratitude.

A woman who loves a man will become erotically aroused with intimate aspects of his anatomy, and, characteristically, if that love ends, her interest in and the idealization of that body will become extinguished.  Correspondingly, in narcissistic men who give the appearance of rapidly losing their interest in previously idealized aspects of a woman's body will be able to maintain that interest if and when, as a consequence of psychoanalytic treatment, the unconscious deterioration of internalized object relations (typically related to profound envy of women) can be resolved.  I am suggesting that, in both sexes, and despite differences related to the different history of their sexual development, idealization of body surfaces, the central aspect of erotic desire, is a function of the availability of primitive internalized object relations.  And the personal history of a love relation becomes symbolically inscribed in aspects of the beloved object's anatomy.

The lack of activation or the extinction of body-surface eroticism, when intense aggression and a parallel lack of pleasurable body-surface stimulation combine in such a way as to interfere with the development of early idealization processes as part of erotic stimulation, determine a primary sexual inhibition.  Such an inhibition is illustrated in the case of the woman whose intense transference love was connected with the wish that I kill her (Case 3).  The secondary repression of sexual excitement linked to later superego functioning and later oedipal prohibitions is much less severe and has a much better prognosis in treatment.

SadomasochismThe wish for teasing and for being teased is another central aspect of erotic desire.  This wish cannot be completely separated from the excitement stemming from overcoming the barrier of something forbidden, and hence experienced as "sinful" or "amoral."  The sexual object is always, in a profound sense, a forbidden oedipal object, and the sexual act a symbolic repetition and overcoming of the primal scene.  But here I am stressing the object's self-withholding, teasing as a combination of promise and withholding, of seductiveness and frustration.  A naked body may be sexually stimulating, but a body partially hidden becomes much more so.  There are good reasons why complete nudity at the end of strip-tease shows is followed by a rapid exit.

Sexual teasing is typically though not exclusively linked to exhibitionistic teasing, and illustrates the intimate connection between exhibitionism and sadism.  By the same token, voyeurism is the simplest response to exhibitionistic teasing, and implies a sadistic penetration of an object that withholds itself.  As with the other perversions, it is characteristic that exhibitionistic perversion is a typical sexual deviation of men whereas exhibitionistic behavior is much more frequently interwoven with the character style of women.  Psychoanalytic interpretations of female exhibitionism as a reaction formation to penis envy need be amended to incorporate our more recent awareness of the complex step the little girl undertakes in shifting her object choice from mother to father:  exhibitionism is a plea for sexual affirmation at a distance.  Father's love and acceptance of his little girl and her vaginal genitality reconfirms her feminine identity and self-acceptance (Paulina Kernberg, personal communication).

The experience of women's sexuality as both exhibitionistic and withholding, that is, as teasing, is a most powerful stimulus to erotic desire in men.  And it is also a source of aggression, a motive for the aggressive implication of the invasion of a woman's body, a source of the voyeuristic aspects of the sexual relation that contain the wish to dominate, expose, and to encounter and overcome barriers of true and false shamefulness in the woman who is loved.  Overcoming shamefulness is not the same as humiliation; the desire to humiliate usually includes a third party, a witness to the humiliation, and implies a greater degree of aggression, which threatens the capacity for an exclusive sexual object relation, as in Case 2.

The voyeuristic impulse to observe a couple in sexual intercourset a symbolic level, to violently penetrate the primal scenes a condensation of the wish to penetrate the privacy and the secrecy of the oedipal couple and to take revenge against the teasing mother.  Voyeurism is an important component of sexual excitement in the sense that every sexual intimacy implies an element of privacy and secrecy and, as such, an identification with the parents and a potential triumph over them.  The frequent symptom of many couples who cannot have enjoyable sex in their own home, in the relative proximity of their children, and can only permit themselves a free sexual life in a secluded area elsewhere, illustrates their inhibition of this normal aspect of sexual intimacy.

Which leads us to one more aspect of erotic desire, namely, the oscillation between the search for secrecy, intimacy, exclusiveness in the relation, on the one hand, and for a radical discontinuity, for shifting away from sexual intimacy, on the other.  The conventional cliche of our society at this time is that it is women who want to maintain intimacy and continuity in love relationships beyond their sexual implication and that men dissociate themselves from intimacy following sexual gratification and orgasm.  This assumption does not take into consideration the differences in development in male and female sexuality, and confuses the early stages of male development with mature development in both sexes.  In clinical practice, we see as many husbands whose dependent longings are frustrated by their perception of their wives' affectionate dedication to their infants and small children, as we see women complaining about their husbands' failure to maintain sexual interest in them.

While it is true that there are different types of sexual discontinuity in men and women, the very fact of discontinuity in sexual involvement and repeated disengagements even within a continuous loving relationship is an important counterpart to secrecy, intimacy, and fusional aspects of erotic desire and behavior.  In fact, the loss of this discontinuity, a sexual relation that merges with ordinary life and replaces it, may well create an accumulation of aggressive elements of fusional experiences that ends up threatening the entire relationship.  The Japanese film "In the Realm of the Senses" by Nagisa Oshima illustrates the gradual deterioration into unbridled aggression of the relationship of two lovers whose sexual encounter becomes all-consuming, eliminating in the process their relation with the external world.

That erotic desire and sexual love should absorb and express all aspects of ordinary ambivalence of intimate object relations is quite obvious.  The intensity of affectionate, tender, polymorphous pervers nd particularly sadomasochistic梖eatures of the sexual relation reflect the elaboration of this ambivalence, and constitute a basic cement of love relations.  But in a more specific way, that ambivalence is illustrated by what, in earlier work (1988b), I have described as the direct and reverse triangulation of sexual relations, in essence, the unconscious and conscious fantasies accompanying erotic desire and sexual intercourse.  These fantasies typically include for each of the sexual partners (a) an excluded but threatening third party (the oedipal rival) and (b) an idealized though unavailable third party, the original object of the positive oedipal conflict.  The wish to be the unique, preferred, triumphant, exclusive love object of one's sexual partner, with actualized triumphs over the oedipal rival in each sexual encounter (direct triangulation) is the counterpart of that other desire (of reverse triangulation) in which one is involved with two sexual partners of the opposite sex, in revenge against the frustrating, teasing, denied oedipal parent.

These advanced oedipal dynamics are the counterpart to their primitive precursors, in which deep ambivalence toward mother and elimination of the primitive father bring about the threat of a fusion in aggression with destruction of the loved object, the counterpart to the idyllic world of ecstatic fusion with the idealized primitive mother.  Bataille (1957), in a different context, has described the dynamic of sexual ecstasy and religious exaltation, on the one hand, and their aggressive counterparts of sacrilege and sacrifice, on the other.

Genetic Aspects of Sexual Excitement and Erotic Desire

Throughout the discussion of all these components of sexual excitement and erotic desire I have referred to some of their genetic roots.  Braunschweig and Fain (1971), (1975) have developed an appealing theory of the characteristics of erotic desire in terms of the early development of the infant's and small child's relation to mother.  To briefly summarize their viewpoint:  the early relationship of the infant of both sexes with mother determines the child's later capacity for sexual excitement and erotic desire.  Mother's ministrations and her expression of enjoyment in the physical stimulation of the male infant's body surface, while emotionally communicating her love for him, foster the infant's erotic desire, but also the infant's identification with mother both under such stimulation and under conditions of discontinuity established by mother's leaving the infant to return as a sexual woman to father.  In relating to mother in father's presence, infants realize that mother's attitude is not quite the same as in his absence (Paulina Kernberg, personal communication).

Braunschweig and Fain attribute a crucial role to the mother's psychological turning away from the infant; they contrast mother's erotic stimulation of her male infant with the discontinuity established by her withdrawing her erotic interest from him and returning it to her husband.  It is at this moment that the infant identifies himself with the frustrating yet stimulating mother, with her erotic stimulation and with the erotic stimulation of the sexual couple, that is, father as mother's object.  This identification of the infant with the two members of the oedipal couple would provide the basic frame for a psychic bisexuality, and consolidate the triangular situation in the child's unconscious fantasy.

The male infant's acknowledgment of this frustration and of the implicit censorship of his erotic desire for mother would then shift his erotic stimulation into masturbatory fantasy and activity, including the desire to replace father and, in primitive symbolic fantasy, to become the father's penis and the object of mother's desire.

In the case of the little girl, mother's subtle and unconscious rejection of the sexual excitement which she would freely experience in relation to the little boy gradually inhibits the little girl's direct awareness of the original vaginal genitality; she would therefore gradually become less aware of her own genital impulses while being less directly frustrated by the discontinuity in the relation with mother.  The identification with mother's eroticism would take more subtle forms, derived from mother's tolerance and fostering of the little girl's identification with her in other areas.  With a tacit understanding of the "underground" nature of her own genitality, the little girl's deepening identification with mother would also strengthen her longing for father, and her identification with both members of the oedipal couple.

The little girl's change of object from mother to father determines her capability for developing an object relation in depth with the loved and admired and yet distant father, and the secret hope of eventually being accepted by him and of becoming free once more in the expression of her genital sexuality.  This development fosters the little girl's capacity to commit herself emotionally to an object relationship that determines the woman's greater capacity for such a commitment in her sexual life, from early on, than is the case with men.

The explanation resides in the early exercise of trust, in the little girl's turning from mother to father, in his love and affirmation of her femininity "from a distance," also, in her capacity to transfer her dependency needs to an object physically less available than mother, and also, by the same change of object, the escape from preoedipal conflicts and ambivalence toward mother.  Men, whose continuity of the relationship from mother to later female objects signifies potential perpetuation of both preoedipal and oedipal conflicts with mother, have greater difficulties in dealing with ambivalence toward women, and evince a slower development than women in their capacity to integrate their genital with their tender needs.  Women, in contrast, tend to develop their later capacity for a full genital relation in the context of their earlier capacity for a love relationship in depth with a man.  In short, men and women develop in opposite order their capacity for full sexual enjoyment and an object relation in depth.

Braunschweig and Fain's theory, it seems to me, provides a new psychoanalytic approach to the observations of early genital masturbation in both sexes (Galenson and Roiphe, 1977), and to the clinical observations about the erotic aspects of mothers' reactions to their infants.  The implications of their theory for our understanding of erotic desire are quite apparent:  the relation between erotic desire and the wish for fusion as an expression of the symbiotic longings for mother (Bergmann, 1971); the search for the teasing object, and the revengeful quality of the aggressive implications of sexual excitement; the polymorphous perverse quality of erotic desire as an expression of its origin in the earliest developmental stages; the different developments in male and female attitudes regarding genital and tender aspects of eroticism; the connection between sexualization of pain and the search for fusion in pain and the aggressive aspects of erotic desire; psychic bisexuality; the unconscious conflicts over an "excluded third party"; and the differential discontinuity regarding sexual relations.


Sadomasochism and Perversion

In the light of everything said so far, it seems reasonable to conclude that sadomasochism is an essential aspect of sexual excitement and erotic desire.  It is crucially and intimately connected with the original libidinal aspects of body-surface stimulation in the context of the affectionate relation with mother, the idealization of body surfaces and openings representing the ideal object.  Sadomasochism incorporates the aggressive impulses triggered in the context of frustration by that ideal object.

Sadism and masochism, I believe, enter into all aspects of libidinal, and its specialized sexual development; they are part of all other "partial drives," and reflect the integration of love and hatred at the basic level of sexual love.

I would now reformulate the concept of sexual excitement as a primitive affect in which objects are still partial and unrealistic, dependent largely on the unconscious fantasy activated in fusional states; erotic desire represents the organization of these primitive objects into the archaic oedipal constellation.  Sexual love represents a further integration of erotic desire with an object relation in depth that contains the ambivalence of specific past relationships with parental objects.  Sexual love also implies a mutuality in the reciprocal reinforcement of the ego ideal of the couple and the mutual neutralization of the remnants of the sexually prohibitive infantile superego.

Insofar as sexual excitement, its sadomasochistic elements, and its early object relations are indissolubly linked, it is this affect itself that may be considered a basic building block of libido as a drive.  Erotic desire is expressed by the "embodied self" (Scruton, 1985) in which the physiology of sexual arousal and the psychology of desire for another person become condensed.  Erotic desire aspires to recreate, in an intense pleasurable relation, the peak affect state that reproduces symbiosis, synthesizes love and hatred under the dominance of love, and permits the expression of sadomasochism as an unconventional, asocial, private, secret, intimate reconstitution of triumph over the oedipal couple in the primal scene.

To be willing to suffer for the sake of the loved object, and to demand that the loved object suffer in response to one's own desire is an expression of trust and an acknowledgment of the sadistic, aggressive aspect of love.  We often find patients with perversion insisting that there is an honesty in perversion not contained in ordinary sexual relations; this defensive idealization contains a grain of truth (McDougall, 1978).  The sadistic and masochistic aspects of erotic desire and of sexual relations provide the impetus for overcoming the barriers of social convention, moralistic prohibitions, disgust, and particularly shame, and thus express the couple's freedom from the restrictive nature of conventional morality.  That freedom opens the road to a full gamut of sexual pleasure but also the danger of aggression unbound as part of the sexual relationship.  The search for symbiosis in ecstatic love has deep connections with the search for symbiosis in pain:  a temptation to sacrifice and destroy.

Normal sexual excitement and erotic desire present all the elements characteristic of perversion, such as idealization, regressive analization and regressive cannibalism in the form of the fantasied destruction of the interior of mother's body.  What becomes specific of the perversions is the restriction of erotic desire because of oedipal prohibition and threat of castration in higher-level functioning patients, and its primitive counterpart, the threat of diffuse destructiveness and loss of capacity for differentiated relations with a sexual object in the more severe spectrum of psychopathology.

To conclude, I would like to point to the peculiar transference implications of the sadomasochistic aspects of sexual conflicts.  In the case of true sadomasochistic perversion, as in all perversions, the danger exists of "as-if" developments in the transference, an imitative way of learning in the treatment that reflects the illusion of the "fecal penis" as a false representation of the true oedipal world (Chasseguet-Smirgel, 1985b).  In patients with severe sadomasochistic acting out, the analyst's concern and the limits to the analyst's position of technical neutrality may become a signficant issue.  It is in the mildest or less severe cases where, paradoxically, limitations to analytic work often evolve by the enactment of sadomasochistic implications of the analytic situation itself.

Insofar as powerful erotic currents are activated in the analytic relationship, the analyst cannot but "tease" the patient with an implicit seductiveness derived from the nonrepressive nature of the psychoanalytic situation.  There is no other relation in which the free communication with the symbolic oedipal object spells out in such richness the essential nature of erotic desire and sexual excitement.  To share with the analyst the most intimate sexual fantasies, experiences, and fears may tempt to exhibitionistic acting out, but also to masochistic "shameful" submission.  Efforts to free the patient's sexual life from these defensive and inhibitory forces generates, under optimal circumstances, powerful erotic currents that need to be contained in an atmosphere of technical neutrality.

It would be trivial to state these well-known facts if, in clinical practice, we did not find so often the temptation to maintain the most intimate and secret aspects of erotic desire, typically those that contain sadomasochistic elements, at least partially hidden from analytic exploration.  To help the patient achieve sexual freedom without fostering a seductive analytic atmosphere, to help the patient become aware of our respect for him while analyzing his distortions of the meaning of our lack of sexual response to him, is an important daily task in analytic work which is highlighted with patients presenting significant conflicts in the area of sadomasochism.  Severe sexual inhibition, indifference, and boredom typically reveal deep conflicts around the sadomasochistic aspects of sexual excitement:  the enormous frequency of these symptoms in analytic practice points to the importance of the analyst's internal freedom in dealing with these basic aspects of human sexuality.


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Knife, fork or chopsticks?


      Friend D said that recently at a large restaurant, while drinking tea, he saw a young couple nearby eating with the old lady whom they got acquainted  with in a foreign country. The old lady was interested in the operation of chopsticks, learning to use chopsticks to get the shrimp dumplings. D said that he has an American friend, who had spent some time studying the methods of proper use of chopsticks whenever he has the opportunity to show you, and said that using chopsticks is a kind of art, also an ancient Chinese culture.

     Chinese people eat with chopsticks, foreigners use knife and fork to eat. In fact, foreigners didn’t use knife and fork before but used a kind of fork made of  wood. This fork spread from Italy through Istanbul to the United Kingdom, the two spines becoming meat fork (two-pronged fork). Prior to this, people ate meat by hand, so someone described switching to meat fork as "an insult to God who gives five fingers to the people."

     Chopsticks are also called "zhu", allegedly because of chopsticks and "live" homonym, meaning stop, which is bad to going boating, so Jiangsu sailors renamed them as "kuaizi", sounding like "be quick", not stop but go quickly, smoothly. Japanese chopsticks read as hashi, and it seems somewhat related to boat. There is a famous Japanese saying "only eat with chopsticks", meaning "tea to hand, mouth open for rice". On the Chinese table each is served a spoon and chopsticks (zhuchi). With a pair of chopsticks and a spoon, maybe there would not be so combative as knife and fork?

Reishi Tea

Review magic mushroom spores recognition guides such as David Arora's Mushrooms Demystified. Learn about the approaches used in identifying the different varieties of edible untamed mushrooms. This publication is thought about the holy bible of mushroom accumulating. Follow up by reviewing publications that cover ranges certain to Arizona such as Jack States' Mushrooms and also Truffles of the Southwest. As all mushroom professionals agree, there is no chance of understanding if a wild mushroom is edible unless you arrive at a positive identification. Identifying mushrooms is an ability that you acquire only through duplicated method at matching specimen buildings with the attributes described in offered scientific literary works.

The caps of these mushrooms are fleshy as well as will vary in size from one to four inches across while the stems are typically 3 quarters of an inch to 2 inches long. When the caps have actually shut veils or are close to the stem, you will certainly learned white mushrooms have actually merely been newly chosen. The youngest, freshest white mushrooms will certainly have a light, delicate flavor.

For a fast appetizer or starters, slice raw white mushrooms thin or thick and serve with numerous dips and also dressings. The caps of larger white mushrooms could be stuffed with almost anything you might think about including ordinary, experienced stuffing and crab meat.

So just how much can you make expanding oyster mushrooms? Should you have any kind of queries regarding where by in addition to how you can utilize mushroom spores, you possibly can e-mail us in the web site. They're presently selling at around $6 a pound. In a 100 square foot expanding area, a lot of gardeners areto create about 400 extra pounds of mushrooms in a single increasing pattern. Doing the mathematics you could see that that an ONE HUNDRED square foot expanding area can be worth concerning $2,400 per harvest, or $15,000 a year. And also keep in mind, it only takes about six weeks for your mushrooms to be fully grown.

Cream of potato soup integrates the very best of potatoes as well as lotion soups together for a flavor filled soup that decreases smooth. You could consume this alone, or add some pork and vegetables to the soup for a great potato soup that will certainly make a loading meal for the whole family.

Under the substantial research study continually doinged this numerous historians, and also the cooperative evaluation as well as professional experiments performed by folks in the health centers, inside the schools, or even by pharmaceutical producers, Ganoderma Lucidum's prospective as an efficient medicine is ending up being more clear as well as specified. As well as like in old China-- where Ganoderma Lucidum is considered not merely a sign of 'prosperity and also peace' or an 'product of tribute'-- the supposed 'miracle natural herb' is now additionally seen by the individuals in the modern-day world as a potential potion for everlasting life.


Make money and manage finance


Make money and manage money - theory, method and activity.


Salary For A Veterinarian

To be a veterinarian is really a great job. In contrast, a normal veterinarian salary for the vet that's just beginning their profession are going to be about forty five thousand dollars each year. Therefore, the veterinarian salary will increase with the pile-up of understanding plus skills. At the same time the actual BLS also considered additional aspects of the vet part, along with the area plus form of job carried out as well as the general employment outlook with the vet. You'll have lots of tasks but it's a pretty rewarding work.

Not surprisingly, you do not would like to do the job for nothing. Since these animal doctors have just began treating creatures, they normally tend to be not given the more complicated and difficult career of giving assistance to large creatures, since this particular type of responsibility can be exclusively entrusted to skilled veterinarians. Some sort of veterinarian who has a large amount of knowledge receive a salary that varies from $60,000 to 70,000 dollars each and every year. Areas having a lot of wilderness and small amount of people will not pay out as well like very well inhabited areas. For men and women who definitely are not put off by such extended working hours, they must note the fact that the entry demands to becoming a veterinarian are certainly tough.

There are some states that would not really pay just as much. They will also discover ways to treat different accidents that animals might have problems with. Pennsylvania compensates around one hundred thousand dollars a year along with New jersey pays approximately $122,000 per year. Quite simply, people veterinarians whom work beneath the Support Activities pertaining to Animal Production could receive an annual mean income of $105,000. Veterinarians are usually not widespread, however they are in fact in demand.

On an ordinary day the vet euphonizes creatures where necessary, advices owners on the creatures how to feed them as well as breed, operates on the creatures, resets cracks, treats pains medicating contagious creatures, vaccinating and identifying any problems the animals may be experiencing. It is best to look into taking on science subject matter for instance biology and chemistry. This will be since the far more one gains knowledge, the better the income he or she gets. You will discover veterinarians who work for nursing homes and also schools, while some have their very own establishments. In reality, individuals have to move on with a qualification to be a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or simply D.V.M. to get inducted in the area of pros.

Veterinarians that do not want to by hired in authorities institutions or animal private hospitals could look for for opportunities within respectable private institutions such as universities as well as animal hospitals and others. Anyone who's considering becoming a vet should do it, but they should be aware of which it will take numerous years of college to turn into one. You'll want to confirm the expenses that a metropolis and even town charge to reside within the location. It doesn't often pay to go to the area that has a better salary along with a high standard of living. You'll want to become reasonable with the charges or people will bring their own pets somewhere else. With these facts, for a number of claim that the veterinarian wage will vary based on the sort of sector.

If you have any kind of questions relating to where and ways to use starting salary for veterinarians, you could call us at our webpage.


How truth about abs articles of confederation Made Me A Better Salesperson Than You

That means that you should use up more calories than you consume. There isn't any should spend plenty of your cash on ab equipment. Stay from trans fat, limit saturated fat, and acquire healthy fats with every meal. they do not for equipment either to help you do them in your house in case you like.

Your best choice is usually to simply add a number of repetitions to your set instead. First, I'm gonna begin with exactly what the strategy is, some behind-the-scenes compares the product, as well as the background of the creator behind the full scheme of things. These are simply one of several powerful ab exercises that don't require any equipment. A�All this really is a fantastic thing and will allow you to perform in most areas of your life.

You really don't have to acquire unhealthy foods each time you are going out. No matter how hard and long you search for a miracle cure to obesity, it's always planning to come right down to diet and exercise. Cardio is yet another tool to ad to your six pack abs routine. You have fudge which is a lot more nutritional than any other type you are going to find.

This E-book gives a detailed information of exercises and special diets to show you ways to build a six-pack fast. A number of great replacements are reverse crunches and crunches with an exercise ball. In order to diminish excess fat and gain muscle to sculpt a pleasant Flat Stomach or Rock Hard Abs you're looking for proper nutrition. Maintaining a strict diet sounds worse pc really is.

So, unless you happen to be capable to focus on to the simple exercises that truth about abs articles of confederation About Six Pack Abs lays out to you, I would say DON'T WASTE your hard earned money buying this method. Individuals are told just what exactly health foods can be harmful to them and foods which will burn up fat rapidly. Most gyms do have a very rowing machine in reality you can get it done outdoors as well. You can do squats, various push-ups, lunges, and floor abs exercises to get a very intense and short 15-30 minutes.


The 3 components You Need For Successful Home Business

Your only object is to advertise your website and market services and products. Create as many sales as possible and slowly improve your commission checks.

Locate a mentor- It is very essential for you to turn to somebody who can give you assistance. This really is really fantastic if it's the very first time you are becoming participated with online small business blog (mouse click the next web page) - - as at some point you will surely require a mentor. It is advisable for you to find guidance from the individuals who are well-known in the field you want to enter. The guidance you take will help you move positively on the oath.

First of it's important to eliminate your fears of failure. Lots of folks have the anxiety about failure, which is a huge difficulty. The risks aren't too high, it is not a matter of life and death if your company does not take off and also you won't lose tens of thousands of dollars. Maybe you will lose a couple of hundred dollars and a little time, but that's it. Surely you should take a chance and try it out. Maybe you will fail and maybe you won't fail.

For those who have identified the type of interesting business that you want to start, do research on the industry. You must comprehend your sector to make a small business plan. Figure out just how much start-up costs will be a marketplace how much competition there is for it and if there's.

Another obstacle to being successful with the #TAG13 small business blog that individuals face is distractions. Well meaning family members enjoy having you at home and may make the most of that.

As a seller, you should prepare yourself for your new eBay home based business. For one, you should always remain positive. Don't believe that company will instantly boom as soon as you open your online shop. At first, company might be slow but this is normal, particularly for beginners in eBay. This is because you haven't built your reputation as a seller. But once you start getting favorable feedbacks from your buyers, company will soon pick up and money will start rolling in.

You just don't have some reason to prevent the excellent social media in the present days as it's the one that compels millions of targeted leads to your home based online business. This is the most crucial trick that'll allow you to attain success. You won't spend more than 5 minutes of your valuable time in upgrading your twitter and face publication accounts with qualitative posts, links or opt-in-page.


Helping You Better Understand How To Make Money Online With These Simple To Follow Tips

Over the years, more and more people have been looking online to earn some extra income. In terms of making money on the Internet, the possibilities are broad and growing. You can start an Internet-based business or perhaps take surveys in your free time. Below, you’ll find great tips that will help you start on your journey.
Some online money-making opportunities are scams. Although there are many opportunities online, there are some dishonest sites as well. Do your homework and look for reviews of anything you’re thinking about trying.
Writers can write for sites like Squidoo and InfoBarrel which offer revenue sharing. You can write about your favorite split and subjects the revenue that comes in. They both allow you to use Amazon’s affiliate marketing program for even greater earning potential.
Create a daily schedule for yourself. You have to persevere to make money online. You are highly unlikely to experience a sudden windfall of cash. You will need to attack it every and each day. Make specific times to work every day. Over the long term, just an hour each day will really add up!
It can be time consuming to learn how to generate online income. One easy way to get started is to find and participate in internet communities that pertain to your areas of interest. Take advantage of them if you can find a mentor. As long as you are receptive to the idea of earning money online, you are likely to succeed.
You have to give information which will verify your identity to make money online. Most companies want you to show proof of who you are, just as you would at a physical place of employment. Create digital copies of all ID right away.
Find something simple for your relaxing time. There are tasks you can do which will make you money without much focus. Especially small tasks on websites like Mechanical Turk ( You can work on these tasks as you watch some TV. While you may not get rich, you will be making the most of your downtime.
Making money online is a gradual process. A good starting point is to seek out others within the industry you are curious about and learn from them. Speak with people who know the industry and pick their brains. Be willing to soak up information all of the time when making money online.
There are many ways you can make money online all you need is some basic information. This article has provided you with some straightforward methods for making money. This can help you get additional income. Alternatively, make enough to support your family.


Looking into Fleet Programs For cheap instagram likes

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Secrets That Will Make You Rich And Financially Secure

Do you desire true wealth in your life? Do you wish to feel the peace that comes with being wealthy and not having to worry about money? Everyone might say that this goal is something that they strive for but how many of us life our lives in a manner that is conducive to achieving wealth and prosperity? Having and holding a heart felt desire to become wealthy is your first step in becoming rich. Living every day with that goal in mind is how you attain that goal.
Keeping your dream of financial security is important to your success. This should never be underestimated. There will be times when you might be tempted to live like your friends or extended family but staying on course and remembering your goal should always be in your mind. If necessary, reminding yourself that without wealth, the final years of your life might not be so pleasant. Every penny saved and earned today is a dollar that you can enjoy later. Scare yourself into following these secrets to building wealth and you will find success sooner than you think.
First, being frugal is a character trait that you might not think most wealthy people possess, but it is. Living a frugal life and spending as little money as possible is a key to creating wealth that most rich people never talk about. For them, it makes sense, though. Wealthy people are very aware of how much things cost and while they might appear extravagant in some of their spending, you will find that most wealthy individuals will cut corners and try to get the best deal on everything from a can of soup to the price of a piece of real estate.
Be aware of where you’re spending your money. Account for every dollar that you spend and make adjustments to your lifestyle to limit how much you’re spending. Make sandwiches for lunch instead of spending large sums of money every month eating out with your colleagues. By the cheaper brands in the grocery store when you’re buying food or go shopping at a thrift store for your clothes. You can find many good bargains and save a lot of money when you adopt this attitude toward spending and every dollar that you save can be invested towards your future wealth.
Avoiding debt and the interest paid on most types of debt is the next thing that you can do to curb your spending and increase your savings. Credit cards are one area that most people waste a lot of money over a year. High interest rate credit cards or revolving debt should be curtailed at all cost to reduce your yearly spending. Take a look at the amount of interest you pay in a year and imagine that money as yours. Think of that money as savings that you have been throwing away every month.
Instead of buying goods with a credit card, set up a budget and save for those items that you simply need to survive. Buying a used car for cash will often save you hundreds if not thousands of dollars. While having a credit card is always good in case of emergencies, only use it when you know that you can pay off the balance immediately. Perks and dividends that you might accumulate by using a credit card are rarely a good deal and this is why many credit card companies offer them. They know that they will make money from you in interest since most consumers might have the best intentions but they lack the discipline to pay off a credit card every month.
Expanding your earnings by working a second job or a part time job at night or on the weekends is another way that you may have thought of earning a little more money. While this is a great idea and by saving that money and investing it you can quickly achieve your goal, most people don’t think of the down side of this arrangement. Working nights and weekend will have its affect on your morale as well as your family’s morale if you are gone all the time. If you have a family, remember that they need to spend time with you.
Instead of taking a traditional part time job, look for work that you can do at home. Finding micro jobs such as freelance writing or becoming a tutor might be a profitable yet enjoyable way to make a little extra money that you can save. Think about any hobbies that you have that could be leveraged. What skills do you have that you might profit from? Think long and hard about this and you are bound to think of something that you could do to make a little extra money at night or on the weekend.
If you goal is to become rich, spend less than you earn and invest your savings wisely. There’s no reason why you can’t become wealthy. You deserve to live a good life free from the stress of living paycheck to paycheck. There’s nothing wrong with accumulating wealth and squirreling money away for later on in life. Retirement might feel like it will never come for you but you can actually meet retirement halfway if you save what you can and invest it in vehicles that will help you to grow your savings.


The Youngest Billionaires On The Forbes 400 Y2014: 11 Under 40

    Each year, Forbes crunches the net worth of every American billionaire to see who will make the exclusive Forbes 400 list. But 11 members of this club are luckier than the rest: they are in good health, have full heads of hair and many, many years to spend their fortunes.
    This year there are 11 American billionaires under the age of 40 on the list.  The youngest member of the Forbes 400 is 30-year-old Facebook cofounder Dustin Moskovitz, who has been the most junior person on the Forbes 400 since making his debut in 2010. He lost bragging rights as country’s youngest billionaire this summer when Snapchat raised money valuing the photo sharing app at $10 billion. Now Evan Spiegel, 24, holds that title but with a net worth of $1.5 billion, he just misses the cut for the Forbes 400.
    Moskovitz is just eight days younger than his former Harvard roommate, Mark Zuckerberg, who is the second-most-junior member of the list. The Facebook CEO is worth an estimated $34 billion, up from $19 billion last year, making him the year’s biggest dollar gainer. At just 30 years old, he is the 11th richest person in America – and the wealthiest under 40.
    A close third is newcomer Elizabeth Holmes, also 30 but born in February, who joins the ranking this year thanks to her blood testing company Theranos. Holmes founded the Palo Alto, Calif.-based company with money saved for college, and has reportedly raised more than $400 million, valuing the 10-year-old company at $9 billion . Two other new additions to the Forbes 400 who fall into the under 40 club are WhatsApp’s Jan Koum, who, aged 38, is worth $7.6 billion, and Uber cofounder Travis Kalanick, also 38, who joins with a $3 billion fortune thanks to his ride-sharing company.
    Unsurprisingly, Silicon Valley whiz kids dominate the billionaire nursery. Napster cofounder and former Facebook CEO Sean Parker is 34, while Twitter cofounder and Square CEO Jack Dorsey is 37. Wireless network entrepreneur and Memphis Grizzlies owner Robert Pera, 36, ranks with a $2.8 billion fortune founded on his Ubiquiti Networks while GoPro camera maker’s Nick Woodman, 39, is worth an estimated $3.9 billion. In percentage terms,Woodman is the year’s biggest gainer, with a 200% increase in his net worth since last year, to $3.9 billion. GoPro went public in June; the stock has been soaring as more people buy GoPro cameras and strap them onto bike helmets, surfboards, scuba gear and more.


    Outside of tech, there are still fortunes to be made – or inherited. Scott Duncan, worth $7 billion aged 31, is one of four billionaire siblings who are heirs to the energy-pipeline fortune built by their late father, Dan Duncan. While hedge fund managers have previously had a strong showing in the freshman class of the Forbes 400, this year only Chase Coleman, 39, makes the cut. His Tiger Global Management has about $12 billion in assets under management; Coleman’s personal fortune nears $1.9 billion.
    This year’s group of 11 youngest billionaires in America have a combined net worth of $78.5 billion, or just under 4% of the $2.29 trillion aggregate net worth of the Forbes 400 ranking.


Top 23 Ways To Monetize your Website


As an internet enterpreneur I have always wanted to know the best way I could monetize my website. I started a journey researching the most profitable ways to monetize my website. I've come up with 23 ways to do just that-make money with my website. If you know a method that is not listed below, just
let me know and I’ll update this list.
1.PPC Advertising Networks
Google AdSense is the most popular option under this category, but
there are also others. Basically you need to sign up with the network
and paste some code on your website. The network will then
serve contextual ads (either text or images) relevant to the content on your website,
and you will earn a certain amount of money for every click your visitors make.
The profitability of PPC advertising depends on the traffic
levels of the website and, on the click-through rate
(CTR) and cost per click (CPC). The CTR depends on the design of the
website. Ads placed above the fold or blended with content, for
example, tend to get higher CTRs. The CPC, on the other hand, depends
on the niche of the website. Niches involving mortgages, financial products and college
education are examples of profitable niches (clicks worth a couple of
dollars are not rare in those niches), while tech-related topics tend to receive a
smaller CPC (sometimes as low as a couple of cents per click).
The source of the traffic can also affect the overall CTR rate.
Organic traffic tends to
perform well because these visitors were already looking for something wanted(this called targeted traffic). Social media traffic, on the
other hand, presents terribly low CTRs because these visitors are
web-savvy and they just immune to ads.
Popular CPC Advertising Networks:
2.CPM Advertising Networks
CPM advertising networks behave pretty much as PPC networks, except
that you get paid according to the number of impressions ( page
views) that the ads displayed on your site will generate. CPM stands
for Cost per Mille or Cost per Thousand, and it refers to the cost for 1,000 impressions or page views.
A website that generates 10,000 page views monthly displaying an
advertising banner with a $1 CPM, therefore, will earn $10 monthly.
CPM rates vary with the network, the position of the ad and the
format. The better the network, the higher the CPM rate (because they
have access to more advertisers). The closer you put the ad to the top
of the page, the higher the CPM. The bigger the format (in terms of
pixels), the higher the CPM.
You can get as low as $0,10 and as high as $10 per 1,000 impressions
(more in some special cases). CPM advertising tends to work well on
websites with a high page views per visitor ratio ( online forums,
List of Popular CPM Advertising Networks:
3. Direct Banner Advertising
You can sell advertizing space on your website. It enables you to cut
out the middleman commissions and to determine your own rates. The most
popular banner formats on the web are
-728×90 leaderboard,
-120×600 skyscraper,
-300×250 rectangle and the -125×125 button.
The downside of direct banner advertising is that you need to have a
big audience to get qualified advertisers, and you will need to spend
time managing the sales process, the banners and the payments.
You can visit these links to find out more about Direct Banner Advertizing On Your Website
4. Text Link Ads(TLA)
After Google declared that sites selling text links without the
nofollow tag would be penalized, this monetization method became less
Many website owners are still using text links to monetize their sites, though, some using the nofollow tag and some not.
The advantage of this method is that it is not intrusive. One can
sell text links directly through his website or use specialized
networks like Text-Link-Ads and Text-Link-Brokers to automate the
Examples Of Text Link Networks:
5. Selling or Renting Internal Pages
Some websites sell for a single fee or rent for a recurring fee
internal pages on their domain. Usually they have either high Pagerak
or high traffic, so that people purchasing a page will be able to
benefit in some way.
Examples of website doing this are and
6. Donations
Placing a “Donate” link or button on a website can be an efficient
way to make money, especially if your blog is on a niche where readers
learn and gain value from your content.
Personal development and productivity blogs, tend to
perform well with donation based systems see for example and
7.In-text Adverting
In-text adverting networks like and
will place sponsored links inside your text. These links come with a
double underline to differentiate them from normal links, and once the
user rolls the mouse over the link the advertising will pop. Should the
user click on it the site owner will make some money.
8. Affiliate Marketing
Affiliate marketing is a very popular practice on the Internet used by many people to make money online through their websites.
With Affiliate programs you have merchants willing to let other
people ( called the affiliates) sell directly or indirectly its products and
services, in exchange for a commission . Sometimes this type of
advertising is also called CPA (cost per action) or CPL
Affiliates can send potential customers to the merchant using several tools, from banners to text links and product reviews.
List of Popular Affiliate Networks:
9. Monetization Widgets
There are now widgets that let you monetize your
website. Some of these
services operate under a PPC scheme, others behave like text link ads,
others use affiliate links
List of Companies Providing Monetization widgets:
10. Sponsored Reviews
A company called PayPerPost pioneered this model, with much controversy on the
beginning (related to the fact that they did not require disclosure on
paid posts). Soon other companies followed, most notably Sponsored
Reviews and ReviewMe
Joining one of these sponsored reviews will give you
the opportunity to write sponsored posts on a wide range of topics and make money while doing it. Problem is, not
all bloggers are willing to get paid to write about a specific product
or website to get paid because because they think it is unethical, but
the ones who do just do it are lining their wallets with it!.
If your blog has a big audience you could offer sponsored reviews directly, cutting off the middleman.
List of Sponsored Reviews
11.RSS Feed Ads
With the quick adoption of the RSS technology by many people on the internet, website are starting to find ways to monetize
this new content distribution channel.
Players in this field include:
12. <strong>Selling the Website
Selling your website could be your last resource, but it has the
potential to generate a big sum of money in a short period of time.
Market places on online forums like and are always active with website buyers and sellers. Keep in mind that
they most used parameter to determine the value of a website is the
monthly revenue that it generates, multiplied by a certain number (the
multiplier can be anything from 5 to 30, depending on the expectations
of the seller, on the quality of the site, on the niche and other
Some people also make money trading and flipping websites. They
either create them from scratch or buy existing ones, and after some
revamping they sell them for a profit.
13. Selling an Ebook
You could either structure the website around the book itself, like, or launch the ebook based on the success of the website, like FreelanceSwitch did with the book
14. Selling a Hardcover Book
Many authors sell copies of hardcover books. Examples include,,
List of Self Publishing and Publishing Services:
15. Offering Consulting and Related Services
Depending on your niche, you could make money by offering consulting
and related services. If you are also the author of your blog, the
articles and information that YOU share will build your profile
and possibly certify your expertise on that niche, making it easier to
gain customers.
One example is Chris Garrett at
16.Creating an Email List or Newsletter
Email lists and newsletters represent one of the most powerful
marketing and money making tools on the Internet. They offer incredible
conversion rates, and the possibility to call people to action in a
very efficient way.
Creating a big list is a difficult task though, so if you have a
popular website you could leverage it to increase the number of
subscribers on your list.
You must learn to encourage people to subscribe to
your email newsletter.
List of Software to Manage Email Newsletters:
17.Mentoring programs
People are willing to pay for someone or something that will teach
them and give them knowledge (as opposed to mere information).
Education is one of the biggest industries in the world, and the online
landscape behaves in a similar way.
Creating a mentoring program related to the niche of your website
could be very profitable if you manage to structure and promote it
adequately. There is a wide range of media and tools that you can use
to deliver the information, from text articles to audio and video
Brian Clark leveraged the success of to launch a mentoring program teaching people how to build membership and how to sell content online. The program is titled and it costs $97 monthly.
18. Creating a conference around the website
If your website takes off and becomes an authority on its niche, you
could create a conference around it. Depending on the size of your
audience, the event could attract thousands of people, and you could
make money directly from conference passes and sponsors., for
instance, created a series of conferences that visit several cities on
the United States and on other countries as well. The conferences are
called, and the tickets and passes cost thousands of dollars.
19. Sponsors for Single Columns or Events
If you website has specific columns or events (e.g., a weekly
podcast, an interview series, a monthly survey, a special project) you
could find companies to sponsor them individually.
This method increases the monetization options for website owners,
while giving advertisers the possibility to target a more specific
audience and with a reduced commitment. and are some of the websites I found using this system.
20.Premium Content
Some websites and blogs give away part of their content for free,
and charge for access to the premium content and exclusive tools. is one of many examples I know using that strategy.
21.Private Forums
Although the Internet is packed with free forums, there is also the
possibility to create a private forum where members will pay a single
or recurring fee to join.
charges $100 monthly from its members, and they have thousands of them.
Of course in order to charge such a price for a forum membership you
need to provide real value for the members
List of Popular Forum Software:
22.Job Boards
Many popular blogs are trying to leverage job boards to make some extra income. Successful examples include,,,etc.
The advantage of this method is that it is passive. Once you have
the structure in place, the job listings will come naturally, and you
can charge anywhere from $10 up to $100 for each.
List of Popular Job Poard Software:
23.Audio Ads
Also called PPP (Pay Per Play), this advertising method was introduce by,
the concept is pretty simple: play a small audio advertising (usually 5
seconds) every time a visitor enters into your website. The user should
not be able to stop it, creating a 100% conversion rate based on unique
The company is still rolling tests, but some users are reporting to
get from a $4 to a $6 CPM. Regardless of the pay rate, though, this is
a very intrusive form of advertising, so think twice before using it.


Vital Details On Property Management

Proper real estate maintenance is vital for one to succeed in this sector. In the modern economies, it involves proper care, interacting with clients and quick response to grievances rose. One needs to update self with laws and regulations touching on matters with real estate. These factors if properly catered for, helps in reaping much returns on investments on land related matters. Thus, property management San Diego offers is very important.
Hiring an agent who is a specialist in this filed of expertise is the first step to a successful venture. The supervisor assists to take care of all the issues concerning the property, including collection of rates and rents. As the owner, one may be very busy, taking care of other issues. In such a case, finding a supervisor is a bright idea. This specialist ensures that all is well and that clients are satisfied with the place they have rented.
When you browse the internet, you may find a lot of details that will serve you right; they have all the specifications required to successful management. Websites and blogs are some of the things hat may help you. You may even download the property management software which is readily available on the internet and can be downloaded for use.
Get a working dispatch board. This will assist you in scheduling of jobs to supervisors. This way, you can be able to interact with tenants comfortably. The board is designed in such a way that one is ale to receive calls from tenants who have issues they want to rise. Other duties can be supervised by the authorized agents thus making your work easier.
Alert your clients and tenants on maintenance tasks to be conducted on the estate anytime. Estate maintenance is vital and one needs to plan them in advance. Interact regularly with tenants in order to alert them on scheduled renovations. Be quick in responding to grievances raised by tenants in case of any hitches on rooms. Customer retaining is done this way.
Respond quickly to the emergencies. One needs to have emergency kits to help in responding to emergencies. Fire extinguishers, sledge hammers and water pipes need to be strategically placed in the buildings. Emergency cases may be of other nature. This is where, leaking roofs and walls may affect clients. Evacuate clients to other rooms and they must be safe in order to protect tenants and their items. Good relationships are maintained that way.
You can intermingle well with clients as this improves how you relate with them. It also aids in getting to know what their issues are thus you can correct them. Do not take the issues the present to you for granted. It might just be the right way to win them over.
Rely on tips in order to succeed in the maintenance of an estate. The much needed returns on investment are reaped through getting and expanding ones knowledge on proper estate maintenance. Apply proper and professional tips in order to get maximum benefits. One needs to remember that estate maintenance is not a simple task, hence proper evaluation of tips to be applied is vital.


Media Space



macro media photo

Share media here including videos, flash,music and cartoons etc. UC browser or Dolphin browser is recommended to be used here to enjoy media for mobile phone or iPAD visitors. For PC or Desktop visitors, Mozilla Firefox is recommended.


Cartoon Region

Share cartoon here.


Interpersonal's Sketch



New Year Resolution after 2012

New Year Resolution after 2012

New Year Resolution after 2012.



Speech and action decides the achievement

Speech and action decides the achievement


Cold media

Cold media

Share cold or humorous flash, media or cartoons here.


Humorous flash related to personal and social value-102 world awards


Humorous flash related to personal and social value-102 world awards


Magic shadow dancer


Nothing else, but proficient


Rock Violin


Russian President Putin attended good voice


The 12 year old girl that silenced the world for 6 minutes


The coolest Motor rider-Result of lacking skills


Transfer positive energy


Music space

Share all kinds of music all over the world includng the free and special deal.


Michael Jackson MTV


MTV award ceremony for Michael Jackson.


Top MP3 Songs


Photo Gallery

Photo Gallery

You can share and sell your pictures here.


Animal pictures



Share the pictures of Buildings.


Famous Bridge

China, Yangzi River Bridge, the top layer is for 4 ways high road and the second layer is for two ways railway.

Germany, WINNINGEN Bridge
INNINGEN is built only for motor car being 935 metres long and 30.5 metres wide.


ANGOSTURITA BRIDGE which is 280 metres long, 6 paths, two lines railway bridge.

Red star Bridge, Hunan Province China. It spans clough with height being 65 metres.



Amenrica. Golden gate Bridge. Steel Bridge.


Indonesia, Java-Bali Bridge. Cable-staying and suspending combination bridge.

France, Normandie Bridge.


China, Su Tong bridge is the biggest cable-stayed bridge in the world with 32.4 Km long.

Hang Zhou bay Bridge, the longest cross-sea bridge in the world being 36 Km long. It has 6 ways paths.


Turkey Bridge. It links Europe and Asia with the nick name Euro-Asia Bridge.

Canada, Federal Bridge, with 13 Km long. It is the longest bridge in the world built in the ice covered water being called the ultimate masterpiece of mordern bridge engineering.


Iran Bridge.


Sigarpore, Spiral bridge. The Bridge is like the human DNA.


Norway Bridge.

This bridge is built according to the design of Vinci, who is italian paintor, strucuror and engineer, with the nick name Mona Lisa of Bridge.


Spain, harp bridge.



Structure and Nature


Magical universe


Moon landform. Red indicates high altitude and blue indicates low altitue.

Meterolite crater on Mars火星表面陨石坑

Strange meteorolite crater on Mars.

Solar flare太阳耀斑

Eruprion of sun spots. Magnetic line in southeast of sun becomes longer and longer. The visible part has reached 700, 000 Km equalling the half diameter of sun.


Eclipse in Marshall Islands. Sunglow can be observed when it was covered by moon.

SunSpot eruption太阳黑子爆发

Eruption of sun spots. Solar flare, solar tsunami, magnetic eruption, magnificant variation of sunglow can be seen. Different color stands for different temperature.

Eclipse in space太空日蚀

Eclipse in space.

Saturn ring and aurora土星环与极光

Saturn rings and the polar lights.

South aurora of earth地球南极光

South aurora of Earth.

Space station and moon国际空间站与月球

Space station and Moon.

Dunes on Mars crater火星陨石坑沙丘

Movable balck dune in the craters of Mars.

Astronaut in space太空中的宇航员

American astronaut. His behind is earth.

Mars surface火星表面

Mars surface. It seems that the surface is covered by trees. Actually it is just illusion. The tree is dune covered by layer of dry ice. When ice is melted, the collapsed moutains prduce tree like image.

Sun surface太阳表面

Sun surface.

Black widow nebula黑寡妇星云

Black widow, spider name, nebula in galaxy produces new nebula continuosly and breaks the objects besides through dense radiation. 
Sauron beholder索隆魔眼

Sauron beholder.

Hell planet地狱行星

Hell star.The name was given by it is attacked by fired meteorolite rain continuously.

Corpse star僵尸恒星

Corpse star or white dwarf or super new star is decided by whether it absorbs matter besides it or not.

Vampire star吸血鬼恒星

Vampire star can absorb the matter outside it to keep eternally young.



Hanalei Mist - Kauai, Hawaii 哈纳雷雾-考爱岛,夏威夷

Hanalei Mist - Kauai, Hawaii 哈纳雷雾-考爱岛,夏威夷

Golden Gate Bridge after rain in October. 10月份雨后金门桥

Golden Gate Bridge after rain

Sunset at Point Reyes National Seashore just north of San Francisco. 海边落日

Sunset at Point Reyes

The Light behind the Scripps Pier 斯克里普斯桥之光

The Light behind the Scripps Pier

Foghorns at the Golden Gate雾尽金门桥

Foghorns at the Golden Gate

Jacksonville Sunset 佛罗里达州日落

Jacksonville sunset 佛罗里达日落



Heaven on earth




Nature beauty


Neighbourhood-Rise or regression of civilization?

Industrialization and neighbourhood

Painted by Wenjun Fu 《Neighbourhood—documentation of human ecology》110cmX1600cm

Before urbanization, the buildings are characterized by different residential architectures.However, these kinds of structures were lost in urbanization and produced one single and so called standard architecture pattern which threw away the traditional living relationship, which are characterized by knowledge and belief, and gave the way to the new neighbourhood, which are characterized by incognizance and distrust.

Mr. Fu tried to reserve the lost building history in his painting and named it "Neighbourhood-documentaion of human ecology".





The telergy which was one of human abilities before was lost in the industrialization or so called civilization. The telergy is one of the 6 senses such as eye seeing, ear hearing, foot feeling and mind communication or telergy etc. Through industrialization and cvilization, people learn to hide themselves and are bothered by secularity which caused the loss of telergy. Mr. Fu created this piece to address all of the human being are the same who have the core mind which displays different images.


Under Sea

Lovely world under sea.


Understand your personality and use your wisdom effectively


Character decides destiny-Leopard, his prey and his enemy

    The character of leopard is irritable and kind hearted. Because of his hot temper, his prey is often snatched by hyena and lions. Sometimes lions and hyena seize the prey of leopard. More frequently, lions just stand under the tree, and then leopard begins to move his prey here and there and loses or even gives up his prey on purpose finally. He even tends to take care of the offsprings of his prey such as baboon.


Video:Leopard kills and takes care of baboon


Video:Prey of leopard was snatched by hyena and lion


Famous epitaph without name in the church


When I was young and free and my imagination had no limits, I dreamed of changing the world.

As I grew older and wiser, I discovered the world would not change, so I shortened my sights somewhat and decided to change only my country. But it, too, seemed immovable.

As I grew into my twilight years, in one last desperate attempt, I settled for changing only my family, those closest to me, but alas, they would have none of it.

And now, as Ilie on my deathbed, I suddenly realize:

If I had only changed myself first, then by example I would have changed my family.

From their inspiration and encouragement, I would then have been able to better my country, and who knows, I may have even changed the world.

I am different to the world



Phrases of Nick:
1、“God has a plan to my life giving others hope through my story.”
2、“The tragic thing of life is not losing his arms and legs, but without hope and target! People often complains things they cannot do. If we only remember what we we want to own, but not to cherish what we have owned, that definitely does not improve anything! The real thing that chages destiny is not opportunities but our attitudes.”
3、“You cannot control what you want to meet in the life, but you can strive to live better but not to give up.”
4、“You cannot give up dream, but you can change the direction because you don't know what you will meet around the turning corner.”
5、“Even the worst thing in my life is meaningful to others.”
6、“No hands, no feet, and no worries.”
7、“If you lose, just stand up. ”
8、“If you find that you cannot work miracles, just change yourself to be one.”
9、“Attitude decides the height.”
10、“Never to be afraid to lose, buy continue to try again.”
11、I love my life. Nothing can stops me. But am I always happy? No, I can be sad, I sometimes cry. It is not casued by being without hands and feet because I can accept it. If the person I love is hurt, but i can do nothing, I will be very painful.
12、I love life because I am eager to exist.
13、You cannot choose your life, but you can change it.
14、If you have not given up, then you have not lost.
15、If you plan to give up dream, just keep it for one day, one week, one month or one year. You will find the surprising result by rejecting giving up.
16、Though the environment cannot be changed, you can change your heart, change the perspective to look at the life, encourage your self through my stories to have bigger dream and never give up.
17、It is the biggest lie to think yourself is not good enough; and it is the biggest cheating to think yourse;f have no value.

Uncertain-thanks giving


Singer:Emily Wang Jiabao
Song writer: Shi Longqi
Composer: Li Jie
How far from birth to death, is in the length of our breath
How far from confusion to consonance, when comes a sudden chance
How far from love to hate, you can’t anticipate
How far from then to now, when laughter spreads somehow
How far from you and me, forgiveness only
How far from heart to heart, the sky to the earth 
When party is over,
When old loved is buried,
When memory is covered by the dust,
When everything is the regretfully empty,
It is an uncertain waking up,
It is an uncertain waking up.


Video of uncertain-thanks giving


Singer:Emily Wang Jiabao
Song writer: Shi Longqi
COmposer: Li Jie
How far from birth to death, is in the length of our breath
How far from confusion to consonance, when comes a sudden chance
How far from love to hate, you can’t anticipate
How far from then to now, when laughter spreads somehow
How far from you and me, forgiveness only
How far from heart to heart, the sky to the earth 
When party is over,
When old loved is buried,
When memory is covered by the dust,
When everything is the regretfully empty,
It is an uncertain waking up,
It is an uncertain waking up.